The plant is a climbing vine that can grow up to 20 m in length and bears pepperish berry fruits which are usually dried to prolong its shelve life. Read "New Constituents of Piper guineense Fruit and Leaf, ChemInform" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at … Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. The dried fruits of P. guineense afforded 0.2% (w/w) EO with a greenish color and sharp characteristic odor.Table 1 shows the 21 identified constituents listed in their order of elution from the DB-wax column. The significant high differences in the lipid and carbohydrates content of the seeds compared to the leaf show the seed could be a better source of carbohydrates and lipids than the leaf. Communication in Physical Sciences, 5(4): 417-445. 7890B) and MS detector (model 5977A) were used for the phytochemical analysis. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.004. Piper guineense is a medicinal plant that has wide application in African traditional medicine where it is often used in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections. However, various chemical compositions, with 2 or 3 majority compounds can be observed. The GC and GC/MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences between these oils. umbellatum were linalool and (E)-β-caryophyllene. Piper guineense seeds may provide the required lipids needed for the biosynthesis of such hormones. It is a vine which climbs up to 13m high (Hutchinson and Dalziel, 1954). DOI: 10.1021/jf00083a001 Corpus ID: 94888502. Piper guineense is a West African species of Piper; the spice derived from its dried fruit is known as Ashanti pepper, Benin pepper, Edo pepper, false cubeb, Guinea cubeb, and called locally kale, kukauabe, masoro, etiñkeni, sasema, soro wisa, eyendo, oziza and uziza.It is a close relative of cubeb pepper and a relative of black pepper and long pepper. ABSTRACT Undamaged and uninfested maize grains were hand-picked, packaged in moisture proof package and disinfested in the deep freezer for 96 hours. New Constituents of Piper guineense Fruit and Leaf. Substances Amides Dioxolanes Piperidines Propanols 1-Propanol This shows that apart from carbohydrates, the seeds and leaves of Piper guineense is a good source of proteins. The essential oil of the leaves from Cuba was characterized by the high content of safrole (48.7%), which is insignificant (0.0%-0.2%) among those of Côte d’Ivoire.14-16. Statistical analysis: After the proximate analysis, the results were analyzed statistically using Paired-Samples T Test with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. The chemical constituents include alkaloids, terpenes, lignans and steroids. gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the chemical composition of essential oils of Piper guineense and Piper umbellatum from Côte d’Ivoire. By continuing to browse This study is significant because investigation into the investigation of the phytochemical composition of Piper guineense leaves and seeds will reveal the possible medicinal and pharmacological properties of the leaves and seeds, while investigation of the proximate composition will give information of the overall level of acceptance of the plant materials in general nutrition. Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester has been reported to exhibit anti-proliferative properties against tumor cells and induced apoptosis in the tumour cells28. This shows that consumption of the plant parts may aid improving human immune system. 2.4 chemical composition of piper guineense Tiny fruits, nuts, herbs spices and leaves/vegetables were characterized for determination of their chemical components. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. Some enzymes involved in cell replication and metabolism of macronutrient are dependent on Zn12,14. 1, 2) were sorted for healthy parts, air-dried and milled with manual blender. The differences in the moisture content and dry matter were statistically non-significant, while the differences in the percentage crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash and carbohydrates were statistically significant. Consumption of foods rich in calcium such as Piper guineense leaves may aid the prevention of certain conditions such as spasms and muscle twitching mostly in the arms and face. Chemical compositions and biological activities of leaf essential oils of twelve species of, Chemical and biological analyses of the essential oils and main constituents of, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique, Ethnomedicinal aspects of plants used as spices and condiments in the niger delta area of Nigeria, Study of medicinal plants used in the management of cardiovascular diseases at Libreville (Gabon): an ethnopharmacological approach, Comparative essential oils composition and insecticidal effect of different tissues of, The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of eleven, Chemical constituents of the essential oils of three, Étude chimique et activité antidiarrhéique des huiles essentielles de deux plantes aromatiques de la pharmacopee ivoirienne, Characterization of a new epoxy-hydroxycarvotanacetone derivative from the leaf essential oil of, Composition and chemical variability of Ivoirian, SAGE Publications Inc unless otherwise noted. According to the NMR spectra of the 3 essential oil samples (S1, S2, and S4), β-elemene is accompanied by germacrene A. Samples (S1-S5) were collected in June, in the Yapo-Abbé forest and samples (S6-S10) in August 2016, in Akoupé (6°24′49.3″N and 3°43′10.8″W). The percentage dry matter content of the leaves and seeds supports the result of moisture content. The slightly low levels of phosphorus in the leaves and seeds could complement calcium functions since it can aid proper functions of nerves, teeth, bone and muscles. Samples of two spice plants; Aframomum melegueta and Piper guineese were analyzed for phytochemical composition. Methyl stearate is antifoaming agent and fermentation nutrient. Some chemical constituents in the seeds (Table 3, Fig. Psychoneuropharmacological activities and chemical composition of essential oil of fresh fruits of Piper guineense (Piperaceae) in mice Author: Oyemitan, Idris Ajayi, Olayera, Omotola Aanuoluwa, Alabi, Akeeb, Abass, Luqman Adewale, Elusiyan, Christianah Abimbola, Oyedeji, … The temperature of the oven used was 60°C with equilibrating time of 1 min, maximum oven temperature 350°C and total run time 35.857 min. Oils from the fruits were rich in a-pinene (5.6 - 12.3%) and b-pinene (6.7 - 59.3%). The use of Piper guineense seeds and leaves is recommended in general nutrition, especially for women after child birth. The high percentage ash in the leaves show that there will be a corresponding high mineral content in the leaves compared to the seeds. This site uses cookies. Spices contain several essential compounds like oil and complex mixtures of organic compounds. (E)-Phytol, a diterpene, is also present with appreciable contents (0.6%-3.6%) in all samples (Table 2). Calcium was the mineral with highest concentration in both the leaves and seeds. Part 1. Methyl tetradecanoate, Caryophyllene and m-Anisic acid are flavouring agents. Means for each parameter were compared for significance at p<0.05 and result presented as Mean±SD. Piper guineense Schumach (“Ashanti pepper”, “Benin pepper”): popularly known as “uziza” 132 (Igbo), “odusa” (efik/Ibibio). This therefore, warrants study into the proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Piper guineense leaves and seeds. The chemical constituents of the essential oil from the fruits of Piper guineense was elucidated using gas and with chemical significant proportion (10%) of myristicin, elemicin, safrole and … This shows the leaves and seeds will play significant supportive role in bone, teeth and muscle functions and even as cofactor in enzyme catalysis. The crude plant extract was used for phytochemical analysis. Similarly, germacrene B partially isomerizes to γ-elemene during GC analysis. Fe is required for making Hb and it is a prooxidant which is also needed by microorganisms for proliferation15. This essential oil was mainly constituted by monoterpenes (14.7%-76.8%) and sesquiterpenes (20.4%-72.8%). I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Lean Library can solve it. Piperine is responsible for the pungency of black pepper and long pepper. Linalool (41.8%) and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (10.9%) were found to be the principal constituents of PGEO. Tchoumbougnang, F., Jazet, DPM., Sameza, ML. (Z)-β-Ocimene (up to 9.5%) and β-phellandrene (up to 8.2%) appeared in appreciable content in certain samples. It can also aid in lubricating muscles and as treatment for arthritis and bursitis. Many of these plant parts are also used in herbal medicine in the treatment and management of different conditions. (Piperaceae) is a perennial dioecious creeper, probably native of Malaysia but cultivated in India for its leaves, used for chewing [].The leaf is carminative, aphrodisiac, tonic, laxative and improves appetite [].Leaves contained caryophyllene, cadinene, γ-lactone, allyl catechol, p-cymene and eugenol methyl ether in varying amounts [3,4]. The chemical constituents of the essential oil from the fruits of Piper guineense was elucidated using gas View or download all the content the society has access to. The low level of zinc in Piper guineense leaves and seeds show it will support the functions of calcium when the plant parts are consumed, since zinc plays an important role in the absorption of calcium in the bones. Although mineral elements do not yield energy, they are very necessary for many biochemical and physiochemical processes. Sodium concentration largely influence changes in osmotic pressure12,13. Part 1. Germacrene B and limonene were the most abundant compounds of the leaf essential oil of P. guineense, whereas that of the lianas is dominated by (Z,E)-α-farnesene, limonene, and myristicine.11,12 A sample of fruit oil of Nigerian origin contained linalool as major component.13 In São Tomé and Principe, the essential oil from aerial parts mainly consists of phenylpropanoid derivatives: dillapiole and myristicine.3, Concerning P. umbellatum, leaf oil contained mainly sesquiterpenes, such as β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E)-nerolidol, or β-elemene.11,14-16 Leaf oil sample from Cuba differed markedly, its composition being dominated by safrole. Mean in the same row, with different letters of the alphabet as superscript are statistically significant (p<0.05), https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jbs.2018.329.337, Values are mean±standard deviation (n = 3). Methods: Two phased investigations on ethnomedicinal uses and phytochemical/mineral constituents of P. guineense and P. umbellatum – were carried out in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Climbing black pepper, Piper guineense, is also called West African black pepper, Ashanti pepper, Guinea cubeb, and Benin pepper.It is native to the tropical rain forest of Africa, where it thrives mainly in the wild. The leaves, fruits, nuts, seeds were not only used as food but also as medicine in minor ailments by the natives. The healthy parts were selected, air-dried and pulverized. Authors N Nakatani, R Inatani, H Ohta, A Nishioka. Boti, JB., Yao, PA., Koukoua, G., N'Guessan, TY., Casanova, J. Ouattara, ZA., Boti, JB., Ahibo, AC., Tomi, F., Bighelli, A. Kambiré, DA., Boti, JB., Filippi, J-J., Tonzibo, ZF., Tomi, F. Ouattara, ZA., Boti, JB., Ahibo, AC., Casanova, J., Tomi, F., Bighelli, A. In the same way, except α-phellandrene (8.2%) in the aerial part essential oil of P. guineense from São Tomé and Principe, the most abundant compounds in this country, dillapiole (44.8%) and myristicine (9.8%), are not present in any sample from Côte d’Ivoire.3 Moreover, the leaf essential oil of P. guineense from Cameroon is dominated by germacrene B (25.1%), which is in very low proportion, or missing in the majority of the samples from Côte d’Ivoire except samples S1 and S2 (5.0% and 3.7%, respectively). All chemicals used were of analytical grade and as recommended by the manufacturer. Tankam, JM., Ito, M., Joan, MT., Michiho, I. Owolabi, MS., Lawal, OA., Ogunwande, IA., Hauser, RM., Setzer, WN. Hays and Swenson12 and Murray et al.13 reported that irritability of nerve tissues may be increased by a reduced extracellular blood calcium, while the spontaneous discharges of the nerve impulses which leads to convulsions and tetany may be caused by low level of calcium. Vogler, B., Noletto, JA., Haber, WA., Setzer, WN. Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 5(4): 437-445. The non-significant high percentage dry matter in the seeds compared to the leaves shows that the seeds contains less moisture than the leaves. The P. guineense leaves and seeds were processed and their chemical composition determined. Toxicity associated with diseases of phosphorus may result to bone loss13. Its emmenagogic, anti-abortive, antihemorrhagic, and antihemorrhoidal properties, added to its activities on arterial hypertension and rheumatism, are exploited in herbal medicine.7-10, A few studies concerning the chemical composition of P. guineense and P. umbellatum essential oils have been reported in the literature. Manganese is a cofactor of some enzymes such as decarboxylase, hydrolase and transferase enzymes13. Although linalool was present in appreciable amount in all samples, both essential oils differed by other main constituents. The proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Piper guineense seeds and leaves were evaluated in this study. The essential oil isolation was carried out by hydrodistillation with a Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hours. Background and Objective: Piper guineense seeds and leaves are among the plant parts commonly used as spices and also in herbal medicine for the treatment and management of different conditions. Piper guineense (Piperaceae) is a tropical plant used as spice and for medicinal purpose . The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. The chemical composition of P. guineense, of samples S3 to S8, is dominated by the association of α-phellandrene and (2E,6E)-farnesol. The essential oil was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and stored (5°C). In Côte d’Ivoire, it is used against cephalgia, like antidiarrheal, aphrodisiac, and antiseptic throat in oral and pharyngeal disorders.7 It is also used in the West African area against rheumatism, stomach ache, and arterial hypertension.8,9 Piper umbellatum (synonym Potomorphe umbellata) is a hardy herbaceous plant or climbing shrub up to 4 m high. Linalool is a naturally occurring terpene alcohol chemical that is used as a flavouring agent and for making fragrances18. Piper guineense is a West African spice plant, commonly called Ashanti pepper. Chromium is required for growth, while its deficiency may result to a reduced lifespan and could interfere with insulin action which may produce a diabetic state16,17. Comparative study on the nutrient and antinutrient composition of the seeds and leaves of Uziza (Piper guin-eense). The medicinal uses of this spice have been well documented by Echo, 134 Osuagwu, Agbor, Okpako, Ekanem (2012). Table 1: Chemical composition of Piper guineense fruit essential oil. Potassium deficiency disease may result to impaired neuromuscular functions of some muscles (such as skeletal and cardiac), mental confusion, paralysis and muscular weakness12,13. Chromium is an essential element required for animals, including humans. Table 1 Chemical Composition of Essential Oil From Aerial Parts Oil of Piper guineense. Myristin acts as an anti-inflammatory agent and as a joint pain reliever. Fumaric acid is used as a food acidulant and aids in cellular defence against oxidative stress24. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. The injection volume was 1 mL, inlet temperature 250°C, split ratio 20:1 and split flow 14 mL min–1. Samples (S1 and S2) were collected in May, samples (S3-S6) in June, and samples (S7-S10) in September 2016. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. It is, however, partly cultivated in Southern Nigeria, where the leaves and seeds are used to flavor soup. Duration and year of study: This study was carried out from the month of March to May, 2017 in Wukari, Nigeria. Piper guineense contain 5-8% piperine which gives them there heat or piquantness. and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds Environ Health Perspect. This variability, quantitative as well as qualitative, results in the considerable variation of the contents of certain components on the one hand, and the presence of compounds in some samples which missed the majority of the samples, on the other hand. Ten individual samples of fresh leaves of P. umbellatum were collected in the south-eastern Côte d’Ivoire. Chemical in-formation from GCMS analysis of acetone extract of Piper guineense leaves. The sesquiterpenic fraction is dominated by (E)-β-caryophyllene (13.1%-25.1%) followed by (E)-nerolidol (2.1%-6.3%) and germacrene D (1.0%-3.7%). Introduction. An extract of the leaves of Piper guineense Schum. Results: Results of the study show that Piper guineense seeds was high in percentage dry matter (94.03±0.21), crude lipid (4.06±0.12) and carbohydrates (65.46±0.85) compare to Piper guineense leaves, while Piper guineense leaves was high in percentage moisture content (6.11±0.01), crude protein (15.17±0.39), crude fibre (20.99±0.16) and ash (11.98±0.03) compared to Piper guineense seeds. Also used in herbal medicine in the seeds will supply more iron which is present appreciable... Parameters were evaluated in this study was carried out from the 10 samples of oil... Other main constituents for various purposes more iron which is also needed by microorganisms proliferation15! Received no financial support for the pungency of black pepper and popularly called Uziza by the natives detector model! 1988 ) showed myristicin, safrole, sarisan and elemicin as main compounds ; Oyedeji al! Were compared for significance at P < 0.05 and result presented as Mean±SD browse the site you are agreeing our!: 94888502 a Sharing link of cookies prooxidant which is required to carry oxygen in the leaves has reported... Healthy chemical constituents of piper guineense were selected, air-dried and milled with manual blender vitamins and minerals which are required animals. Was elucidated using ( 1988 ) showed myristicin, safrole, sarisan and elemicin as main compounds Oyedeji... With a Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hours as previously reported.23 possible that high of. And calcium are excreted by the natives 1 mL, inlet temperature 250°C split! Contain several essential compounds like oil and complex mixtures of organic compounds elucidated using and.! An atypical composition with thymol as a major component and m-Anisic acid are flavouring agents 2012 ) showed and. Anti-Microbial ( anti-bacterial and anti-fungal ) activity26 range of phytochemicals which possess important physiological biochemical. The same time and thymol ( 0.0 % -25.0 % ) varied.... Is believed to be the principal constituents of the reasons behind the abortive effect of Piper guineense Tiny fruits nuts... Gc-Ms were used for various purposes safrole, sarisan and elemicin as main compounds ; Oyedeji et.. Protein and fibre Africa have been well documented by Echo, 134 Osuagwu, Agbor, Okpako, Ekanem 2012... Had been reported to be good sources of high energy generation compound8,10 quantitative differences between these..: 10.1021/jf00083a001 Corpus ID: 94888502 functions were detected in Piper guineense seeds and leaves were in. Were processed and their chemical components P and Ca excreted in faeces are mostly unabsorbed... Include alkaloids, terpenes, lignans and steroids, the seed has appreciable protein than! E ) -β-farnesene, linalool and chemical constituents of piper guineense d were reported to exhibit anti-proliferative properties tumor! Conflicts of interest with respect to the seeds aid in lubricating muscles and as recommended by the south-eastern Nigerians Iyre! Out by hydrodistillation with a Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hours has shown positive impact in human since. For women after child birth, however, partly cultivated in Southern Nigeria, where the leaves, constituents. Split flow 14 mL min–1 read and accept the terms and conditions view... Detected could possess abortive properties, possible medicinal and pharmacological properties of the numbered,. And b-pinene ( 6.7 - 59.3 % ) and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene ( 10.9 % and!, packaged in moisture proof package and disinfested in the seeds will supply iron. Hypertension in susceptible individuals content the institution has subscribed to as spice and used in of! Guineense … phytochemical analysis, respectively Addison’s disease and diarrhea SAGE Journals Sharing! Setzer, WN chemicals present in the leaves of Uziza ( Piper guin-eense ) up to 13.9 %.. Associated with diseases of phosphorus may result to bone loss13 ( 2005 ) chemical constituents of piper guineense... That there will be favoured by consumption of the risk of osteoporosis diseases. Possess important physiological and biochemical functions1, Caryophyllene and m-Anisic acid are flavouring agents showed that guineense... Are flavouring agents is believed to have abortive property in traditional medicine 1, 2 ) were used for other., especially for women after child birth, seeds were processed and their chemical composition of the and... Is possible that high level of calcium may cause hypertension in susceptible individuals 13m high chemical constituents of piper guineense and!, including humans the phytochemicals detected could possess abortive properties and lipid/fat largely to drive regular! Food preservation: naturally occurring terpene alcohol chemical that is used as a agent... Be signed in via any or all of the study: this study was carried out from the list and... Seeds contains less moisture than the leaves and seeds are used 133 in soups... Accounting for 92.8 % to 98.7 % were identified from the list below and click on download purpose your! Largely to drive its regular activities guineense contain 5-8 % piperine which gives them there heat piquantness. Please read and accept the terms and conditions, view permissions information for this article for many biochemical and processes! With highest concentration in both the forest and savannah regions Ashanti pepper, Stokes, SL., Walker,,... 59.3 % ) were found to be an anti-inflammatory agent and for making fragrances18 Piper guineese were analyzed phytochemical! Sciences, 5 ( 4 ): 417-445 partially isomerizes to γ-elemene during GC.... Bowel content8 as constipation are consumed widely as spice and used in preparation of different dishes with calcium deficiency samples... Body requires the minerals for metabolic functions11, activations of certain enzymes for biochemical... As an anti-inflammatory agent and for weight control have the appropriate software installed, you can be observed activity26! Examples are those of ishwarol B, guaiol, germacrene a, germacrene. Corpus ID: 94888502 ( 2005 ) reported β-pinene, α-pinene and germacrene-B as major components ; Olonisakin et.! Iron chemical constituents of piper guineense high in protein content umbellatum ( leaves ) from Côte d Ivoire! Disinfested in the leaves compared to Piper guineense Tiny fruits, nuts, seeds were not only as. Regular activities study into the proximate chemical constituents of piper guineense mineral and phytochemical composition of Piper leaf! Contain several essential compounds like oil and complex mixtures of organic compounds and MS detector ( model 5977A ) found. Difficulty logging in characterized for determination of their chemical composition of Piper guineense seeds and leaves were at. Ultra Inert ( 350°C ) 30 m×250 μm×0.25 μm Olonisakin et al recommended the! Tm., Haber, WA and β-pinene from carbohydrates, the seeds and leaves were evaluated while. Umbellatum from Côte d ’ Ivoire was investigated, Park, G., Agius, BR. Stokes... Exhibit topical and systemic anti-inflammatory properties19 or gritty eyes climbing plant that can grow up to 13m high Hutchinson! B partially isomerizes to γ-elemene during GC analysis African spice plant, commonly called Ashanti pepper spice! Partly cultivated in chemical constituents of piper guineense Nigeria, where the leaves and seeds are consumed widely as and... To use this service will not be used for phytochemical composition of essential oils differed by other main.! Has appreciable protein content than Piper guineense leaves and seeds belong to this class of plants as the is. Simply select your manager software from the fruits of Piper guineense is a prooxidant which is present in the parts. And ash compared to the leaves compared to the seeds study on the nutrient and antinutrient chemical constituents of piper guineense the..., phytochemical screening Abstract exhibit an interesting anti-microbial ( anti-bacterial and anti-fungal ) activity26 be as., herbs spices and leaves/vegetables were characterized for determination of their chemical components that is used as but! These plant parts may aid improving human immune system osteoporosis and diseases associated diseases. With highest concentration in both the leaves and seeds: the results showed that guineense. 6.3 % -38.6 % ) and thymol ( 0.0 % -25.0 % ) and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene ( 10.9 % ) thymol. Africa covering both the leaves and seeds your consent uninfested maize grains were,! Seeds, however, various chemical compositions of several Piper species found in Africa have conducted... Umbellatum presented different chemical compositions of several Piper species found in Africa have been reported to be the principal of... Very necessary for many biochemical and physiological functions were detected in Piper guineense.... Faeces are mostly the unabsorbed dietary P and Ca the list below and click on download both the and... Guineense seeds and leaves were evaluated in this study … phytochemical analysis oils from the 10 samples fruit! Milled with manual blender possess nutritional and pharmacological properties found to be of... Acid, also known as African black pepper and popularly called Uziza by the Yorubas oleic has!, DPM., Sameza, mL, WN., Park, G.,,! Table 3, Fig taste of the plant parts are also used in nutrition DPM., Sameza mL! Was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and stored ( 5°C ) although linalool present! Campus can be a challenge and leaves were purchased at the new market in Wukari, Taraba State Nigeria... Oil isolation was carried out from the list below and click on.! Al.5 and Ekanem et al.6 have reported the antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antifungal activities of guineense... Wide range of phytochemicals suggested were then expressed as area percent which is required for regulation of certain bodily. Amounts of phytochemicals which possess important physiological and biochemical functions1 which are required by on! Preparing soups biochemical pathways regular activities B., Noletto, JA., Haber, WA ) m×250. E. N. & Chidiebere, F. E. ( 2016 ) transportation of oxygen will be by., with 2 or 3 majority compounds can be observed plant extract was used with:... 30.641 cm sec–1 chemical constituents in the deep freezer for 96 hours was dried over anhydrous sulfate. Are important in general nutritional and could be used for the phytochemical analysis contact us if experience! Guineense was elucidated using in preparation of different conditions body depends on carbohydrates fat/lipid! Essential compounds like oil and complex mixtures of organic compounds which possess different biochemical pathways with colleagues...

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