The Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease is threatening food security for the majority of households in ECA. The main thrust of the current management strategy is to prevent the introduction of the disease through sound surveillance and early destruction of diseased plants. It continues to cause yield loss of 30–100 percent in farmers’ fields, depending on the time of infestation which is valued at $198 million in Kenya. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) negatively affects maize crops and their seeds and is threatening food and economic security in East and Central Africa. It is caused by simultaneous infection with two viruses, maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMoV) of the Tombusviridae family and a virus from the Potyviridae group: maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Johnsongrass mosaic virus(JGMV) or oth… Immediately uproot and bury infected plants at least 5 cm, when seen in the field. Usually at a rate of 20-30 ml/20 L but double-check label as products differ. Finally, the entire plant dries and dies (Stefan Toepfer), Leafhoppers: greenish hopping insects 4mm, vectcors MLND (Lynett Elliot), Plant using certified seed from reliable suppliers, Rotate maize with non-cereal crops such as sweet potato or beans for a period of 2-3 seasons if MLND had attacked your or neighbouring fields, Do not plant maize near fields with infested maize as the disease will spread into your field, Avoid movement of green maize from infected areas to disease-free areas. “In all these areas, it was a sudden phenomenon that could not be explained, whose cause was unknown, but one that was having a devastating effect on maize productivity with losses ranging from 30 to 100 percent under severe infestation,” Wangai said. In a Nutshell . Rotate crops with legumes, cowpeas, potatoes, cassava and other non-host crops. Domestic regulation can be put in place to prevent the movement of maize products from affected areas to disease-free regions. [NAIROBI] A new project has been launched to control the spread of a lethal viral disease which affects maize yields and threatens food security in many Sub-Saharan Africa countries. In severe infections, the whole plants withers and dead hearts are visible inside the stems. A spokesman for the Agriculture Research Organisation, Robert… Read Further. An intensive multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional strategy is being implemented to curb the spread of MLN in sub-Saharan Africa, and mitigate the impact of the disease. Maize lethal necrosis is a serious disease of maize from its first appearance in Kenya (Wangai et al., 2012). It is caused by two viruses namely Maize Chlorotic Mottle virus (MCMV) and the sugar cane mosaic virus (SCMV), which combine to attack the maize crop. SUMMARY: Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a new viral disease for Africa. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a serious threat to maize production where it occurs. To prevent the plague from hitting Kiboko, Wangai told participants to follow advice from the Ministry of Agriculture, CIMMYT and KARI. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease that attacks maize crops with significant impacts on both food security and nutrition security on smallholder farmers in Kenya. Report to the Ministry of Agriculture of any suspicions of MNLD since it has not yet been recorded in the country. The farming community around the Kiboko Crops Research Station in Makueni County, Kenya, has agreed to stop growing maize for two months to help curb the spread of maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease. Biology and Ecology Top of page. Internationally, MLND has been reported from Peru, USA, Argentina, Mexico, Thailand, razil … The experimental host range where maize lethal necrosis disease is concerned, is restricted to the grass (Poaceae) family with maize being the primary and natural host. Avoid movement of green maize from infected areas to disease-free areas Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) is expected to invade Zambia. The leaves begin to dry from the margins and progressing toward the midrib. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a new deadly disease of maize that was reported in Ethiopia very recently. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease continues to reduce the productivity of maize drastically threatening food security in the affected regions. However, the observed symptoms were more severe than commonly associated with MCMV, suggesting the presence of maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a disease that results from maize infection with both MCMV and a potyvirus (4). Stakeholders agreed to plant maize by 15 October and harvest it by 29 February. MLN is a disease caused by the synergistic combination of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMV) and any from the potyvirus family, in this case Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV). 14 days; r.e.i. Responding to inquiries about the origin of the disease, KARI pathologist Anne Wangai said the disease was first reported in Bomet County, Kenya, where farmers have since named it Koroito, or “the plague.” It rapidly spread to neighboring counties. As maize farmers in Nigeria were still battling with losses incurred by army worm, experts have cautioned on another very devastating disease called “Maize Lethal Necrosis” (MLN). Control the MLND - vectoring plant hoppers only if neighbouring fields are infested and yours not or little. Do not grow maize as monoculture in the same area. In Kansas, crop losses due to ... to prevent the movement of maize products from affected areas to disease-free regions. CABI The Plantwise Blog Maize lethal necrosis disease on the decline in Kenya CIMMYT Maize Lethal Necrosis disease plant clinics Plant clinic data collected by Plantwise countries in East Africa has corroborated a statement from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) which said maize lethal necrosis disease (MLN) is “under control but not… A plant health inspectorate organization can test for Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in all seed coming into the country including the material for breeding. Maize lethal necrosis disease *Expert warns Nigeria. Its presence has been confirmed in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Ethiopia. One reason why the Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) is spreading to new areas in the country is that many farmers are not willing to practise crop rotation by planting other crops that do not belong to the grass family. The Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease is threatening food security for the majority of households in ECA. Maize cobs look mature but when you open the cob there are no grains inside.Do not eat maize affected by this disease because people and animals may die. When using a pesticide, always wear protective clothing and follow the instructions on the product label, such as dosage, timing of application, pre-harvest interval, max number of sprays, restricted re-entry interval. WHO toxicity class III (slightly acute hazardous); p.h.i. Most infected plants die early or become sterile – so they can't produce pollen and seed. Unlike maize streak virus disease though, the streaks of MLND are wider. This is because plant hoppers are difficult to control as they can re-immigrate into fields after spray. Mahuku also explained the tell-tale signs of MLN disease, which include chlorosis, or the mottling of the leaves; premature drying of cobs; stunting and/or cobs with uneven spots; tip dieback resulting in no pollen production; and a poor seed set and shriveled ears. Do not hesitate to do so, as plants will have no grains in cobs anyway. The region's reliance on maize-based agri-food systems and the susceptibility of prevailing (pre-2010) germplasm and conducive crop management has led to serious concerns about future MLN outbreaks for the maize … 3 days; r.e.i. Maize diseases can reduce yield. Seed Inspectors can check for Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) in seed farms. MLND causes yellow stripes that later lead to drying, stunted growth, failure to tassel, no grain filling in cobs and death of the whole plant leading to the whole field having plants with dried appearance, Angular leaf spot disease also causes necrotic dead leaf areas but only in spots and not entire leaf edges or leaves as for MLND, Consider taking action as soon as few plants shows these symptoms. Maize Lethal Necrosis disease, which was first reported in Kenya and Tanzania, has now spread to Uganda, raising concerns for food security in the country. Inspect fields weekly for vector insects and the disease symptoms. Always consult recent list of registered pesticides of ZEMA of Zambia, Apply malathion-based products to leaves (organophosphate). It has caused great concern because plants are killed and little or no grain is produced. High yield losses in maize due to MLN ranging from 50 to 90% have been reported and can reach 100% where the disease pressure is high. Mugo, a maize breeder, is also the coordinator of the Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) and Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA) projects in partnership with KARI and the Ministry of Agriculture. This has not only threatened regional trade, but also seed industry. Toxic to bees and to aquatic organisms; To be applied only once per season (Alternate with other pesticides). The disease is difficult to control for two reasons: 1.It is caused by a combination of two viruses that are difficult to differentiate individually based on visual symptoms. Called maize lethal necrosis (MLN; or corn lethal necrosis, CLN), it can devastate maize crops. “If we have the will, we will conquer the disease. Of these two, MCMV is a new virus in the African continent, first recognized in an MLN outbreak in Kenya, whereas SCMV is known to be endemic in Africa. Maize lethal necrosis disease Maize lethal necrosis disease is a viral disease that was recently reported in Kenya in the Rift Valley region and has since widely spread to other regions in the country (Adams et al., 2013; Wangai et al., 2012) and to the neighboring countries (Lukanda et al., 2014, Adams et al., 2014, Mahuku et al., 2015). The coinfecting … Maize Lethal Necrosis: An Emerging, Synergistic Viral Disease Annu Rev Virol. The study used spatial regression analysis to model MLN severity on sampled farm fields in Bomet County, Kenya. How to manage the disease Practice and adapt crop rotation “After harvesting maize, plant non cereal crops such as beans or any other legume or potatoes at the portion you had planted maize to reduce the level of insect vectors” explains Dr Wangai Plant maize early into the season and once a year to avoid a buildup of the virus. Symptoms similar to MLN were reported in Uganda, Tanzania, South Sudan and Ethiopia. SCMV is found worldwide, but this was the first report of either MCMV or maize lethal necrosis in Africa. WHO class II (Moderately hazardous), p.h.i. Young maize plants stop growing and they look as if they are mature. Prevention techniques include using crop rotation to break the disease cycle, not planting new maize crop near an infected field and maintaining fields clean of weeds, particularly grasses, to eliminate alternate hosts of potential vectors. Look for thrips (tiny yellowish-green slender insects) and leafhoppers (small 0.5 cm greenish insects, jumping) on leaves as they spread the disease. This project researched solutions to minimize or eliminate the risks and effects of the disease in the region. The project on ‘Preventing Seed Transmission of Maize Lethal Necrosis in Africa’ aims to generate a better understanding of these epidemiological issues to allow for more effective control of MCMV transmission through commercial seed, support the development of effective, evidence-based phytosanitary regulations, reduce MLN disease pressure in eastern Africa, and curb the spread to non-endemic countries in other parts of the continent. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Maize lethal necrosis was first identified in the USA in 1976 (Niblett and Caflin, 1978).The disease is caused by a combination of two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), a pathogen prevalent in many parts of Kenya affecting cereal crops. A plant health inspectorate organization can test for Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in all seed coming into the country including the material for breeding. For instance, in Kansas, crop losses due to MLND have been estimated to be 50-90% (Niblett and Claflin, 1978; Uyemoto et al., 1980) depending on the variety of maize and the year. MLND-infected maize will not yield a cob, thus losses are high, Look for yellow stripes on leaves which are much wider than those of Maize streak virus. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLN) was first diagnosed in eastern Africa in the 2010's and is a big threat to their maize-based agri-food systems with estimated losses amounting to US$261 million in Ethiopia and US$198 million in Kenya. The viruses are vectored by insects as maize thrips, rootworms and leaf beetles. Diseases interfere with normal plant growth and lower grain quality. Of 17 symptomatic leaf samples from each Bomet and Naivasha, nine from Bomet and all 17 from Naivasha were positive for MCMV. Control of maize lethal necrosis disease. Advanced symptoms include browning from the edge of the leaves, which does not occur in maize streak virus. The farming community around the Kiboko Crops Research Station in Makueni County, Kenya, has agreed to stop growing maize for two months to help curb the spread of maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease. However, the observed symptoms were more severe than commonly associated with MCMV, suggesting the presence of maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a disease that results from maize infection with both MCMV and a potyvirus (4). If many plants in a field show MLND symptoms vector control is too late. Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease is “a looming threat unlike anything farmers have ever faced before ”i especially in the Eastern and Central Africa (ECA) region where maize is an important staple and food security crop. MAIZE LETHAL NECROSIS The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) is leading collective efforts to control the spread of Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease that appeared in eastern Africa in 2011 and is considered the worst threat to the region’s food security in decades. Maize lethal necrosis is a serious disease of maize in Africa from its first appearance in Kenya. In Kenya, it caused crop losses of between 50% and 100%. Photo: Eric Boa, CABI, CC BY 4.0 Photo: Eric Boa, CABI, CC BY 4.0 . Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLN disease, MLND, corn lethal necrosis) is a viral disease affecting maize (corn) predominantly in East Africa, Southeast Asia and South America, which was recognised in 2010. Inspect fields weekly for vector insects and the disease symptoms. The Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) is a result of a combination of two viruses, the Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMoV) and any of the cereal viruses in the Potyviridae group, like the Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV), Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) or Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV). The public can be informed about the disease through press releases, posters, brochures, sensitization workshops and radio programmes. Called maize lethal necrosis (MLN; or corn lethal necrosis, CLN), it can devastate maize crops. Published under a CC-BY-SA 4.0 licence. 0.5 days. The Maize Lethal Necrosis disease is a new devastating maize disease. Effect of disease in maize. Common diseases that affect maize include maize smut, maize streak virus disease, grey leaf spot and maize lethal necrosis. 8:51. This disease is caused by co-infection of plants with two viruses – maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) – and can cause yield losses of up to 90%. 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