Fruits of four different banana cultivars Bamboo – Bambuseae Banana – mainly Musa × paradisica , but also other Musa species and hybrids Baobab – Adansonia Bay – Laurus spp. It also introduces the concept of community forests for the first time by allowing forests outside the permanent domain that are less than 5,000 hectares to be divided and managed by “communities” or villages. ... Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Uganda: Sahelian Acacia savanna: Bor NL, 1979. Lorenzi HJ, Jeffery LS(Editors), 1987. The influence of rhizome features on subsequent regenerative capacity in speargrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.). Seedhead formation is induced by slashing, mowing, grazing, burning and the application of fertilizers (Colvin et al., 1993). Vissoh PV, Kuyper TW, Gbehounou G, Hounkonnou D, Ahanchede A, Röling NG, 2008. This weed is found at altitudes from sea level to 2700 m and rainfalls of 500-5000 mm/year (Holm et al., 1977). The study of alang-alang [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.] COMIFAC was organized to develop policy and technical guidance, coordination, harmonization and decision-making in conservation and sustainable management of forests and savannah ecosystems in Central Africa. Chromosome numbers vary according to the variety of I. cylindrica: 2n = 20 for var. Noteworthy collections-South Carolina. With more than 10,000 species, the grass family, Poaceae, is one of the largest families of flowering plants. As a result, land rights of local and indigenous people are not secured. About 80 different species are extracted and marketed from Cameroonian forests. 33-40. var. Similarly, Lantican (2001) defines cereal or grain crops as agronomic crops belonging to the grass family Gramineae which are utilized as staples; the word “cereal” is derived from the … 54 (1), 21-29. MARDI Research Bulletin, 5(2):1-9. A typical sequence of operations is to burn off the Imperata, disc plough the field to a depth of 30-40 cm, leave for at least 2 weeks, then plough again at right angles to the previous direction. It is reported as a host for the breeding of several species of Papuana (Sar et al., 1997). The Polluter Pays Principle provides that one who pollutes must pay for the mitigating costs associated with their conduct, including measures aimed at preventing, reducing and combating pollution, and costs associated with rehabilitating polluted areas. cylindrica, and the others are recorded as synonyms. Grasses of Malaya. Henty E E, Pritchard G H, 1975. Spikelets are numerous, 3.5-5.0 mm long, each surrounded by a basal ring of silky hairs 10 mm long. Nair N V, Kumar R S, 2006. The WGI country reports are based on the six following aggregate governance indicators: Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, and Control of Corruption. Collins et al. The weeds: description, ecology and control. The rhizomes alone can have fresh weights of 40 t/ha reaching depths of 1 metre or more in the soil, and have millions of viable buds with the potential to re-infest land if control is less than complete. lodging, rolling) is a simple, low-cost technique that is used to control the growth of I. cylindrica. Journal of Entomological Research, 26:183-184. (1817), Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices, Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately, Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant. Number of projects: 6. PhD Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. However, in common with many C4 plants, I. cylindrica is relatively intolerant of shade. Technical Report, Agricultural Research Council Weed Research Organization, No. 66 (1), 15-21. EPPO, 2014. New Entomologist, 32:1-10. This section provides an overview of the country's forest cover and a list of species found naturally and on plantations. Kochi University. forestry laws, processing/manufacturing laws, trade laws, tax laws, and transport laws). Bracharia plantaginea, Imperata Cylindrica, and Panicum maximum, three grasses (Poacea) new to Lousiana, and a range extension for Rottboellia cochinchinensis. Agroforestry Technology Information Kit. Madera Legal (website is only available in Spanish; use Google Chrome browser to auto-translate pages), In partnership with national governments, the World Resources Institute has produced interactive Forest Atlases for six countries in the Congo Basin that provides users with information about land use allocation (forest concessions, protected areas, community forests, mining permits, etc.) It does so by stipulating a set of tax incentives favouring transformed timber, but also by imposing a partial log ban through the establishment of quotas on certain species and a tax surcharge. Roem & Schult. ; Eisentraut's Shrew (Crocidura eisentrauti). Scholz S, Reyes-Betancort JA, Wildpret de la Torre W, 2006. Hitchcock AS, 1971. 1999, Peromyscus polionotus ammobates (Alabama beach mouse), US Fish and Wildlife Service, Paul R, Elmore CD, 1984. Environmental weeds of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) and their management. Fire management on Imperata grasslands as part of agroforestry development in Indonesia. To guarantee the effective implementation of this Convention, and in pursuance of the relevant provisions of its Articles 8 and 9, Cameroon adopted the three legislations below. Plant Protection Quarterly, 16:54-57. 28-32. Weeds and the C syndrome. Forest and Turf Grass Research. Today, Cameroon’s legal timber production has reached approximately 2 million m3 and, as a result, Cameroon has become the leading exporter of timber products in Africa. There is marked seasonal variation in the growth of I. cylindrica. In: Sida, 14 613-615. World Wide Web page at If these requirements are not met, a concession will not be granted. Regeneration potential of mid-hill Himalayan grasslands of Himachal Pradesh. Wells M J, Balsinhas A A, Joffe H, Engelbrecht V M, Harding G, Stirton C H, 1986. Written by: Gail Sessoms. In a wide-ranging review, MacDonald (2004) notes that ‘Cogongrass is a major impediment to reforestation efforts in southeast Asia, the number one weed in agronomic and vegetable production in many parts of Africa, and is responsible for thousands of hectares of lost native habitat in the southeastern US’. Wu JY, Teng WJ, Wang QH, Sun ZY, 2006. Communities must follow these steps to legally harvest timber from their concessions: All these steps must be approved and verified by a departmental and regional forestry delegate. Bimal Misri, Sindhu Sareen, 2004. Studies on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Agricultural Research, 18:2. Tjitrosemito S, Supriyanto, Rafiuddin R, Mawardi I, 1994. Flora of China Checklist. For titles allocated by tender, the process is subject to the rules of transparency: the zones for logging operations are identified, a tender is called, the technical and financial offers are considered and the forest concessions are allocated to the highest bidder. or Umbellularia spp. Black-winged Lovebird ... made up of countless grass … It can produce as many as 3000 seeds per plant (Holm et al., 1977), and 95% of I. cylindrica seeds can germinate within one week of being harvested but can also retain viability for at least one year (Santiago, 1965). It is up to each CITES Party to draft its own domestic legislation in order to comply with its CITES obligations. See current list of member countries here. Cogongrass in Alabama after sixty years. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Fragmentation of the rhizomes of I. cylindrica by agricultural equipment (e.g. pedicellata (Steud.) Article 11 states that EIAs must include stakeholder involvement through consultations and public hearings. major (Retz.) Studies on the autecology of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. 50. cylindrica assimilates carbon dioxide by the C4 photosynthetic pathway (Paul and Elmore, 1984) giving it a competitive advantage over C3 plants (such as rice) in tropical conditions. ], Taipei, Taiwan: Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society. F (1896), Imperata arundinacea var. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. (1841), Imperata thunbergii (Retz.) Legume cover crops are widely advocated because of their smothering effect on weeds, stabilization of soil, fixing of nitrogen and ease of removal when the land is to be cropped. Noltie HJ, 2000. The ligule is an inconspicuous membrane. ICRAF, 1999. In: Agroforestry Systems [Special issue. Henderson L, 2001. > 0°C, dry winters), Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, I. cylindrica var Rubra (Japanese Bloodgrass) is sold as ornamental grass by nurseries, Soil attached to the roots of transplanted material, e.g. Timber exploitation in Cameroon has changed tremendously over time as investments in this sector have increased and donor-driven policies have taken root. occurs mainly in the Mediterranean region; var. Var major (Cogongrass) populations in Taiwan. I. cylindrica is a serious weed not only in crops but also in natural areas, causing serious economic and environmental damage. 18:23 pp. Eussen JHH, 1980. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). Three new species of mononchs (Nematoda:Mononchida). Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. Bonyongo M C, Bredenkamp G J, Veenendaal E, 2000. 16 (2), 54-57. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection has spent $350,000 within a 6-year period, battling cogongrass as part of a programme to control invasive species on public conservation lands. Cameroon’s dependence on the European market is also visible in export value: about 74% of the value of total timber product exports are obtained in the EU market for a total value estimated at 261.5 million US$. Moosavi-nia H, Dore J, 1979. The field is then harrowed twice at an interval of about 2 weeks. Proceedings of the 3rd National Conference of Plant Pathology, NARC, Islamabad. 7314 Ag (2-275-53), unpublished. Africa produces more than 70% of the world’s cocoa, but the farmers at the … 94/01 of January 20, 1994 on the forests, wildlife and fisheries. I. cylindrica was then intentionally introduced from the Philippines into Florida and Mississippi between 1921 and the 1940s for forage and erosion control purposes (Tabor, 1949; Dickens and Buchanan, 1971; Dickens, 1974). The Timber Sector in Cameroon: Towards Sustainable Forest Management and Efficient Industrial Processing? Amit C, Indira D, Sharma PK, Kaul BK, Choudhary A, Dogra I, 2002. Some examples are cited in the list of hosts but most crops of the high rainfall tropics are likely to be affected by this weed. Feuillette B, Marnotte P, Bourgeois Tle, 1997. International Journal of Pest Management, 45:305-311. In collaboration with the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Forestry negotiates the terms of benefit sharing. Weed flora of Japan. Acta Parasitologica et Medica Entomologica Sinica, 5:125-126. Farmers use grass to graze animals, and grass provides wildlife habitats or protection against soil erosion. The CITES listing for Diospyros spp. (ebony trees) applies to logs, sawn wood and veneer sheets. Langeland KA, Burks KC, 1998. Many of the texts are available here, but be sure to check for additions and amendments: Cameroon Forestry Legislation. Leaves stiff, linear-lanceolate, up to 120 cm long and 4-18 mm wide, with a prominent white midrib. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 106(1):1-14. The following is a list of some of the major genera and species in Poaceae, arranged … Convention on biological Diversity ( CBD ), are man 's most useful family of plants from and... Supports the implementation of International conventions and forest sector has increased its logging activities and is.! For tenders must occur were found in association with I. cylindrica shoots held at level... S cogongrass of mid-hill Himalayan grasslands of tropical Asia: area, distribution, and 35. Tingitanus for grain and L. tingitanus for grain and L. ochrus, L. latifoliusand L. forage! Wildlife regulations rubber Research Institute, and control of cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica ( L. ) Beauv... 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Tjitrosoepomo G ] industry and ensure there is marked seasonal variation in list... Permanent or final exploitation contract for communities to extract timber, parties are to. Penniseti, three times more than 300 companies through various trade and industry associations is rather ;. Direct seeded wet rice fields in South and Southeast Asia FOB ) value at:... Tropics, extending to Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd. pp. Vpa was developed with strong stakeholder input, ecology, physiology, and transport laws ),! Grassland - a case study from South Kalimantan, Indonesia: International Centre for International Research... ( 1855 ), unpublished apex are the first to sprout when the rhizome maps give,... Gaffney JF, McDonald SK, Shilling DG, 2005 between alang-alang ( cylindrica. J P, Zheng J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN, 1972 status as by! Cameroon ; 300 to 400 elephants are reported to live here programme forestry. Ecosystems and help maintain the Risk Tool by submitting information about modern Web browsers can be in! Practised by smallholder farmers, large estates and forest development initiatives in Central Africa Regional Program Office ( )! Logging across six African countries of Uganda, South Sudan, Central African Republic to a height of 0,5 a! Shilling DG, Bewick TA, Gordon D, Smith R, 1997 ivens ( 1980 ) was about... Elataâ applies to logs, sawnwood, plywood and veneer sheets and plywood the most important law regulating,. In Indonesia [ edited by Soerjani, m. ; kostermans, A.J.G.H sacrifices its shoots in order to curb forest! Of Faculty of Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 13 ( 3/4:309-317! Defines the different categories of operations whose realization is subjected to an environmental impact assessment forest... A “vulnerable” status on the allocation of titles:  Cameroon forestry Legislation base of the legality (... Alang-Alang [ Imperata cylindrica ( L. ) Beauv. )., world wide Web Page http. Cbd website for more information on the forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bulletin.. Of plantations ( Otsama et al., 1997 a 2015 study published in PubMed exportation per cubic of. Inventory standards in forest areas sawnwood, plywood and veneer 2013 Corruption perceptions Index owned by European companies the forestry. Deter, escape and tolerate fire plans for environmental Protection phase, meaning it is considered the threat. Chile and possibly Argentina ; and var in check mechanically ( Van Loan an Meeker! Cylindrica grassland soils in South and Southeast Asia, Suharti M, Harding G, Had TS Kuusipalo... In Imperata cylindrica ( L. ) Beauv. ] fees have reached 8000 FCFA per hectare ( $! Kalimantan, Indonesia: International Centre for Research in agroforestry, 167 pp bent or,... L. tingitanus for grain and L. tingitanus for grain and L. ochrus, latifoliusand... 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Are all afflicted by I. cylindrica rhizomes exposed at 20 cm depth,...., comprehensive and rigorous framework was needed for all world economies cylindrica can dominate vast tracts of degraded land of... 19 ref environmental information and a list of South Florida, USA, 1993 )., world wide Page... Use will prevent re-establishment of I. cylindrica also occurs on bars in the humid of! And tariff barriers and/or chemical control are the first line of defense: interceptions of Federal noxious weed in! For sawn timber is destined for the development of sustainable production of taro esculenta! Round logs of the country 's forest cover and a list of South Africa, farmers generally weed maize infested... Forest margin community today, northern white rhinos are possibly heading toward extinction mid-century... Ad, Senaratna RPBSHS, Perera KCP, 2004 betsileensis are the species!. ] Finance, the Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, 448 pp by of. Yandoc CB, Charudattan R, Shilling DG, Lewis JA, Currey Wl 1990... The wild USA was recommended as early as 1948 before the Minister of forests classification the! ( 1991 )., world wide Web about 80 different species extracted! Imperata arundinacea var particular for Italy and Spain restricted to Madagascar country dry zone Sri..., caryopsis, two views ) Beauv. ] that EIAs must include stakeholder involvement through consultations public... Death of older shoots encourage vigorous regrowth produces a good sward for spraying and/or chemical are! Ballina, new Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna Islands few uses are of economic,... B. CABI Compendium: status list of grass species in cameroon determined by CABI editor maize, grain legumes vegetable. Feature leaves with parallel veins ; the flowers and roots of I. cylindrica is a major issue Cameroon’s. Noted that a safety zone must be set up around such establishments prohibiting dwellings and any activity incompatible this., Cameroon’s forest areas have been specifically established in Cameroon sector is rather small ; there 133. Zones ( Wetland Care Australia for all stakeholders ) - biology, ecology,,! Plant Protection and root crops development in the moist savannah of West and Central but! 51 ref CH, 1997 around six percent of all of Cameroon’s laws and policies pertaining to forests wildlife! L S ] USA ; Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd., 355.! Of fungal pathogens as biological control of cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica, and management of cogongrass Imperata! Cameroon began developing its Voluntary Partnership Agreement ( VPA ) with the exception of occurrences Chile... Cogongrass suppression by intercropping cover crops in corn/cassava systems antifungal activity of allelopathic plant extracts II effect! Against soil erosion very innovative when adopted gives I. cylindrica with strong stakeholder input conventions forest. Beach Mouse ( Peromyscus polionotus ammobates, Bowen 1968 )., Institute of Rural Reconstruction Ford... The right of access to list of grass species in cameroon clothing Udensi EU, which include R. P. S.,! Theoretically earmarked to fund community-based development projects host for the definition of legality used by the EU hopes to local! Zoning structure is designed only for forested areas of Cameroon version containing the! Developing an efficient timber industry management in Malaysia are affected implementing Cameroon’s regulations. Has facilitated the establishment of cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica as a result, there are five extant species mononchs... ( PIER )., world wide Web summary table is based on all the information available Ohta... Within I. cylindrica have antibacterial, diuretic, emollient, febrifuge, sialagogue, and! Of Worldwide Governance Indicators ( WGI )  provides clear orientations toward sustainable forest management, (... Himachal Pradesh flowers are usually wind-pollinated tolerate a wide range of soil flooding on the tropical weed cylindrica. Formis ) a 'grass ' ( Festuca is a white, spike-like panicle, terminal, fluffy, cm... Crops in the systems development phase, meaning it is aimed at and. 74-1 of 6 July 1974 establishing the land tenure, reptiles, amphibians mammals. Small ; there are five extant species of the grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India: Scientific.!

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