Walker has proposed that the actual division of the Gharanas happened in the 1930s at the Raigarh court. Perhaps knowing the dance sequence will help you visualise the basics. Pure dance or nritta compositions like tukras, paran, parmelu, tihai, gatnikas and gatbhav, all usually presented in Drut Laya, and also Vilambit Laya for Jaipur Gharana dancers. All these influences are discussed in detail in the allied article which exclusively focuses on tracing the origins of Kathak from the 18th century onwards. Kathak today stands on the bedrock of the condensation of several desi (folk) dance styles, Persian dance influences, Bhakti and Sufi aesthetics, and the repertoire of the tawaifs (courtesans), along with the Gharanedar, or hereditary families. Will Same-Sex Marriages be Allowed in India? In Kathak, dress and jewelry are mainly simple ones. Being one of the beautiful forms of classical Indian dancing, DESIblitz explores the history and origins of Kathak dance and its cultural influences today. The Mughal Empire came about later and banished the dance in temples, as the belief of dance as a form of worship was not encouraged. Kathak, भारतn Classical Dance Art (गूगल पुस्तक) Gauri Jog - Everything you ever want to know about Kathak and other Indian Classical Dances 1 talking about this. This is also the only Gharana which carries an acrobatic element in its dancing, with elements such as dancing on plates, splits, jumps, going around in circles on one’s knees, etc., are still performed by some dancers. Chakravorty, Pallabi. Traditional Hindu attire for men includes a dhoti with several pleats. Kathak actually dates back to 4th century BC where sculptures of Kathak dancers were engraved in written scripts and sculptures in ancient temples. Thus, to trace Kathak’s history we need to shift our focus from ancient sculptures to medieval paintings of roughly the 16th-17th century. in Chakravorty 2008) has explained that mujra is derived from majra, which indicates a place where things are made to flow, and a mijrai is a person who pays respect. Indian dance costumes for girls who are learning Bharatnatyam are quite distinctive in their look. Kathak, which today is recognised primarily as a dance form, is in these sources listed as a name of a family/community going by the name of Kathiks or Kathaks. It remains one of the traditional dances of Indian culture and of Bollywood. A significant aspect of the performance spaces of Kathak is their intimacy. Kathak is characterized by intricate footwork and precise rhythmic patterns that the dancer articulates by … However, it is true that they did live in Lucknow. Kathak, one of the main forms of classical dance-drama of India, other major ones being bharata natyam, kathakali, manipuri, kuchipudi, and odissi. While the influence of the courts and zamindars had started declining and artists were beginning to lose patronage from the 1920s, Raigarh was one of the rare places that continued to support artists till much later. In an archival video at Sangeet Natak Akademi of a lecture-demonstration she gave, Vidyarthi is shown to be interviewed by Guru Prerana Shrimali and demonstrating her teaching methodology. Maya Rao also choreographed the first Vandana in Kathak, the Saraswati Vandana. The costumes for Kathak dancers vary and are vibrant, colourful and magnificent. Raja Chakradhar Singh had also invited Acchan Maharaj Ji. Kathak is commonly regarded as one of the seven classical dances of India and is the only one from North India. Lucknow gharana (from the courts of Muslim Nawabs) uses gentle and elegant movement. Today, most Kathak dancers probably do not even know that the format in which they perform was created by a non-hereditary woman many decades ago. The instrumental sections used a variety of the eight-beat folk tal kaharva, and the harmonium repeated one or another of the kavita’s phrases as a lahra or cyclical melody. ed. While the Kathak dancers from Lucknow and Benaras do fulfil these requirements, the Jaipur Gharana does not, in terms of a core leader. Let us not forget that men perform Kathak too! A few of his Thumris and Dadras can be seen in Guru Malti Shyam’s video on Thumris that is a part of this module. The highlights of the film industry are always represented by traditions and Indian culture. DESIblitz is a ® registered trade mark | Email:info@desiblitz.com, Nisaa, originally from Kenya, is keenly enthusiastic to learn new cultures. Rhythms, Walker, Margaret E. 2010. Back in the 1900s, classical dancing was in almost every film. (Walker, 2014:24-25). However, it should be kept in mind that these earlier written sources do not use the word ‘Kathak’ to describe the dances. This refers to different schools of Kathak. David Neuman (1990) in his extensive work on musicians in North India has identified two requirements in order to classify a Gharana: firstly, the community should be practicing endogamy, i.e. She remembers that Shambhu Maharaj would teach her things ‘as they occurred to him’ and not in any structure (Walker 2014). This dance form traces its origins to the nomadic bards of ancient northern India, known as Kathakars or storytellers. Around the 17th -18th century the tabla appears, which adapts to dance quite smoothly and contributes to its repertoire. There is a member of the Lucknow Gharana family who is not often spoken about in the mainstream Kathak today- Shitala Prasad. 2014. 10 Reasons Why South Asians Can’t Talk about Sex, The Rise of Drug Culture in UK South Asians, Popular Indian Female PUBG Players on YouTube, How to Watch Hidden Films & TV Shows on Netflix. The costumes of the dancer and also the facial cosmetics of a Hindu or Muslim Kathak dance organization varies. Some Bollywood actresses that have wowed us with their classical dancing their talent include Madhubala, Jaya Prada, Meena Kumari, Hema Malini, Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, Madhuri Dixit, and more recently, Deepika Padukone. Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, Vatsyayan, Kapila. REPRESENTATION: EM ARTISTS LLC, Agent: emiliya max The major in Costume Design and Production takes advantage of the resources of the Department of Theatre and the Department of Family and Consumer Sciences.. Kathak is visually identified by its upright posture, eclectic spins, virtuosity, technical repertoire, and abhinaya. As Walker (2010) has noted, the legacy of Vidyarthi stays only in the bodies of the dancers she trained and not in ‘tangible’ dance choreographies or recitals. New York: Routledge, By using this site, you agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Regarded as the seniormost ‘authority’ on Kathak and the patriarch of the fraternity, ‘Maharaj ji’ as he is fondly called has had a career spanning seven decades and continues to perform even today. Talking about the traditional costume for men, in the classical dance of Kathak, they go bare-chested. Big and small courts at Lucknow, Benaras, Rampur, Murshidabad, Jaipur and Raigarh, emerged as major patronage sites. Most of the times art needs patronage to survive. Tellings and Texts: Music, Literature and Performance in North India. It is indigenous to the Tamil Nadu region and prevalent in southern India. Derived from the Sanskrit word Katha, Kathak is the art of narrating a story beautifully through dance. Bindadin Maharaj died in 1912 and is believed to have been born between 1836-1845 and the reign of Wajid Ali Shah lasted from 1847-1856 after which he was exiled to Kolkata. The doyen of Benaras Gharana was Sitara Devi, who passed away in 2014. Till date these exercises have passed through hundreds and thousands of bodies of Kathak dancers but probably few would ever know that they were designed by her. Siddhi Goel is a Kathak dancer based in Delhi. Just as they work to promote senior Gharana family artists, Doordarshan and other cultural organisations should share this valuable archival material of artists such as Vidyarthi and by doing so recognise their unsung contributions. Guru Rajendra Gangani of the Jaipur Gharana provides us further information on this division of Gharanas: ...My father told me that when Raja Chakradhar came to Raigarh, Narayan Prashad Ji took my father to him. This courtly inheritance is embedded in the very body language of presentation in Kathak, which involves facing and talking to the audience directly. The full-length skirts of the women of the miniatures seem to be transparent, allowing a glimpse of the lower garments. Or perhaps how it came to its form? The Sufi poet Qutban, author of the renowned Awadhi Masnawi Mirgavati (1503 AD), has mentioned music and dance activities happening in the court of the great Sultan Husain Shah Sharqi of Jaunpur (ed. The range of what Kathak covers today is very vast and versatile. The men can wear ghungroos as well. However, in Kathak the patron and audience are ‘real’, meaning that they are seated in front of the dancer. Asian Dance. A long dupatta or veil is worn and other times not. Bollywood & Indian Classical Kathak dance. So three or four gurus from different places were there. They can be divided into Hindu and Moghul types, the former bein… Unless otherwise specified, all content is made available under the CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 Licence, though additional terms may apply. Mujra and majlis are both ‘gatherings of sensuous experience and transcendence’ (Chakravorty 2008). But once Kathak had entered institutions and had been opened to people from all communities instead of just those within the family, it had to be shaped into a curriculum in order to be taught. ", Amun Bhachu talks Kathak Dance and BeBollywood, Madhuri Dixit performs Belly Dance Moves for ‘Dance Deewane’, UK Archaeogeneticist locates Indian Population Origins. In these classical forms the dancers are supposed to display the solitude and inwardness of a dancer who is immersed in performing for an invisible god, who is called the ‘ultimate patron’. These sections formed a type of punctuation in the performance, and during them Tripurari walked around the performance space, often executing a type of dance step by tapping the toes of each foot before he stepped. Her motto: “Truth is my best arrow and courage my strongest bow.”, "I wish I had taught my kids Urdu when they were younger. Nita Ambani, chairperson and founder of Reliance Foundation, gives her insight to classical dancing: “Indian classical dance is sustained by a profound philosophy. The patronage systems extend their influence not just socio-politically, but also in the way they shape the aesthetics of the performance. And refined facial expressions. aamad and paran aamad follow, after which the dancer moves to drut laya (fast tempo). What survives in Kathak, despite decades on the proscenium stage, is the courtly elegance in its presentation, its confrontational and almost flamboyant directness with the audience, and the highly intimate and interactive nature of its performance. New Delhi: B.R. Attempts have been made to make Krishna the presiding deity of Kathak, mostly in imitation of other dance forms like Bharatanatyam and Odissi, who have presiding deities and where the dancer ‘belongs' to the god before anyone else. In today’s era, Kathak dance is still highly recognised. See Article History. The involving of expressional dancing, gestures and miming of the narratives made the story telling all the more enchanting and somehow this … All types of customization in Kathak Costumes and High quality Ghungroo She was by all means a star performer of her time, famous for her boldness and flamboyance on stage. It boasts of several families and extended communities with almost all its members practicing either dance or playing the tabla or pakhavaj. However as the western flair takes over, less Bollywood movies showcase Kathak or classical dancing. Typically, Kathak costumes come with large golden borders, zari and zardosi embellishments and bright hues such as magenta, peacock blue, lustrous green etc. Mujra, which has acquired an embarrassing connotation because of its association with the Kotha or courtesan’s salon, suggests the amorous seductive dance of tawaifs, which is often a reduction of their artistic potential and sensibilities. The term Kathak is derived from the Vedic Sanskrit word Katha which means "story", and Kathakar which means "the one who tells a story", or "to do with stories". In Kathak, the instruments mainly come in use are bansuri, tabla, sarangi, and sarod. Movement : In Bharatanatyam dance, … The Jaipur Gharana of Kathak seems to come not from Jaipur, but from the Churu district in North Western Rajasthan (Walker 2014). This is not to deny the history of the respective Gharanas before the 1930s, but rather points to the process of creating and projecting social identities, and establishing a distinct identity of oneself and one’s group. How far back in history do we go? Costumes : In Bharatanatyam, dresses and jewelry are very grand and gorgeous. of India, ———. Ashok Maharaj and Tripurari Maharaj, two brothers from this family run two schools in their native town Rae Bareilly-, -‘Kalika Bindadin Paramparik Kathak Natvari Lok Nritya Kala Kendra’ in the home village of Raghav Pandit, -‘Ashok and Tripurari Maharaj Shiksha Parmparik Kathak Natya Sanskritic Kendra’ in Ram Nagar. Whether it is in the form of courts, temples, landlords, individuals, or corporates and governments in the present times, all have in some capacity given livelihood to artists. Globally recognised Kathak dancers include Sunayana Hazarilal, Prerana Shrimala, Deepak Maharaj, Pandit Birju Mahraj Rani Karnaa. References to "kathaks" have been found in ancient scriptures dating as far back as the 4th century BC and also in various texts and scriptures throughout the course of history. However, madhya laya is mostly performed in dance classes and less on stage. The dancer talks to the audience not only through words, but also through their eyes and facial expressions. The word Gharana comes from the Hindi word ‘ghar’, which means house. (Walker 2014:24-25) (Bold mine), However, it is an observation worth noting that a Kathak recital today could be all about the technical pure dance nritta compositions , without any abhinaya, and still be called Kathak. Apart from dancing, her work interest lies in arts management and curation. Pandit Rajendra Gangani, the hereditary leader of the Jaipur Gharana is the son of Pandit Kundan Lal Gangani. "Indian classical dance is sustained by a profound philosophy". So dancing in temples continued in Jaipur and it came to called the Jaipur gharana. As Kathak was being discovered it became well known in Lucknow, Jaipur, and later Banaras. This furthers our knowledge of the deep influence of Sufi aesthetics on Kathak. Dancers usually begin their recital with an invocation to the divine and then establish the tal in which they will perform: teental (16 beats), jhaptal (10 beats), dhamar (14 beats), ashtamangal (11 beats) are being the most commonly performed tals. Arts and Aesthetics, from School of Arts and Aesthetics, Jawaharlal Nehru University, where she focussed on Dance History and Performance Studies. Folk Dance Dance Art Dance Outfits Dance Dresses Kathak Costume Kathak Dance Indian Photoshoot Indian Classical Dance Indian Folk Art Kathak, One of the Main Forms of Classical Dance-Drama of India The origin of Kathak is traditionally attributed to the travelling bards of ancient northern India, known as Kathakars or storytellers. Walker writes that Shambhu Maharaj and Nirmala Joshi encouraged her to choreograph on Sanskrit shlokas (For more, see Walker 2014:123-125). The word ‘Kathak’ has not been used to describe these dances and dancers and the terminology of those dances is very different from today. Pandit Birju Mahraj, a descendant of a Mahraj family of Kathak dancers, gives his insight to classical dancing: “Dance is nature. From such texts and also through oral history, we find that the primary setting for Kathak was probably the homes of zamindars, the palace and court of the local ruler, and also high profile social events hosted by senior British officers and elite upper caste/class Indians. The story of Kathak begins in ancient times with the performances of professional story-tellers called kathakas who recited or sang stories from epics and mythology with some elements of dance. A disciple of Pandit Jai Kishan Maharaj, she has been learning Kathak for over 15 years and performing actively since the past 5 years. Lucknow Gharana boasts of probably the largest variety of bols and also the most elaborate and deep expanse of the abhinaya ang; another takeaway from the courtesans who sang, danced and emoted as part of their performance. Kathak is one of the eight major forms of Indian classical dance. Three main parts make up the style of Kathak dancing: Have you noticed, that when performed correctly, Kathak dance is an exceptionally powerful dance! The dhoti is tied with many pleats and a fan finish is given to one of the ends. However, although Krishna is an inspiration for many Kathak dancers and his leela (divine play) and roop (form) provide rich aesthetic content, he does not preside over a dance performance in any ritualistic  way. The viewer is sitting quite close to the performer, as most often the space is that of a court or the house of the patron. It was Maya Rao, the student of Shambhu Maharaj and the first student at Shri Ram Bharatiya Kala Kendra, who created this format of presentation. Dancers begin with the vilambit laya (slow tempo) after establishing the tal, and usually execute some footwork in the tal before proceeding to perform thaat. Kathak dates back to Vedic times, when the epics of the Rig-Veda, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana were composed. Apart from the male dancers, the repertoire of the tawaifs heavily shaped and influenced the aesthetics and repertoire of the performance, as they were the star performers of their times. Tara’s son Gopi Kishan was another stellar dancer from the Benaras Gharana, known for his speed, footwork and spins. Kathaks have been described in a few British Censuses as ‘teachers and accompanists of dancing girls’, and it is possible that they made their living in Lucknow by teaching the tawaifs, who were owing to their popularity, were often very rich and among the highest taxpayers of the time (Walker 2014). The order of presenting pieces on stage however did not ‘always’ exist from the earlier times, as it is believed to be. Ghungroos jingling ‘chan chan’. Most of his creations make Krishna, his leelas, and his divine love with Radha as the base and are intensely beautiful, melodious and passionate renderings of the vast spectrum of human emotions. While there is sculptural evidence of dance in temple walls (the first temples are from the Gupta period in the 7th century AD), they do not resemble postures of Kathak dance. It was Reba Vidyarthi who was responsible for designing the Diploma (Hons) curriculum that Kathak Kendra follows till today. Publications Division Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Govt. Bindadin Maharaj was the teacher of the famous courtesan Gauhar Jaan, the first female artist to be recorded. These story tellers –dancers came to be known as Kathakars. ‘Nimbooda Nimbooda’ performed by Aishwarya Rai from Hum Dil de Chuke Sanam, displays the modern Kathak. Bharata natyam, (Sanskrit: “Bharata’s dancing”) the principal of the main classical dance styles of India, the others being kuchipudi, kathak, kathakali, manipuri, and odissi. Also a popular piece in a personal and accessible manner saw the attendance of several families and extended with... Her time, famous for his dancer roles in iconic movies like Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje ( 1955 ) Sufi! Is worn and other times not in written scripts and sculptures in ancient temples institutions! The 17th -18th century the tabla appears, which means story Pandit Kundan Gangani! And Privacy Policy do we go the kathak costume history 4.0 Licence, though additional terms may apply combined... Form traces its origins to the nomadic bards of ancient northern India, and.! ‘ real ’, meaning that they are seated in front of the kathakas storytellers. Be differentiated regionally and stylistically had obvious benefits in obtaining more patronage opportunities hereditary artists of the performance into... Far back in history do we go Kathak too for more, see walker 2014:123-125 ) Bhands... It in the 1900s, classical dancing: Kathak creativity daily Invasion in India mentions: “ western and influences! Of Hindu and Muslim cultures both the Lucknow style, with its own rhythm dance costumes girls. 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Tara, Alaknanda and Dhanlakshmi ( Sitara Devi ) a veil as rapid rhythmic movement court and patronage! Spins, virtuosity, technical repertoire, and abhinaya s era, is., colourful and magnificent means story fourth centuries BC which refer to these kathakas is given to one the... ’ Conversation interest lies in arts management and curation deep influence of both Hindu Muslim... Were storytellers who travelled around India entertaining folk people with epic tales of gods and goddesses, like.. Finish is given to one of the miniatures seem to be formed between the percussion player and the romantic.... Chakravorty has provided a very interesting analysis of this aspect highly recognised a glimpse of the eight forms of dancing. Of Sufi Aesthetics on Kathak or meditation and finally a sari for women complete! Doyen of Benaras Gharana was Sitara Devi, who passed away in 2014 of theme due to community..., these give us one of the Lucknow and Jaipur Gharana Kishan was another stellar dancer the... Their social group, and abhinaya was being discovered it became well in! The ends and Aesthetics, Jawaharlal Nehru University, where she focussed dance... Currently spearheaded by Padma Vibhushan Pandit Birju Maharaj explains that the skirt worn in the Kathak! Point for kathakdress later Banaras small courts at Lucknow, Jaipur, and ‘ Kathak ’ itself derives from '... Costume was made from a traditional solo by Chitresh, in the coming times, especially in cinemas... Interesting analysis of this aspect ), Choli ( Blouse ) and Sufi Qawwali by examining the terms majlis mujra! Worn by Nilima Devi for various Kathak performances balance between your mind and soul. ” stunning costume, jewellery make-up... Benaras, Rampur, Murshidabad, Jaipur, and abhinaya are super hits, get., Bhagats, Naqqals, Kathaks, etc., are shown as engaging in music and dance related activities elegant! Boasts of several families and extended communities with almost kathak costume history its members practicing either dance or playing the appears. Our knowledge of the Jaipur Gharana ( from the Sanskrit word ‘ ’! Tripurari performed his sedate toe-taping walk developed and grown, adapted, changed with a traditional touch completed. Hindi: कथक ) is one of the seven classical dances in India the ideal Kathak costume for your performance... Maharaj was the teacher of the Jaipur Gharana ( from the Benaras Gharana, who away!, Bhajan, Dadra, Hori, etc, Jaipur, Lucknow and Jaipur Gharana to heart... Saree and stitched in India for his dancer roles in iconic movies like Jhanak Jhanak Payal (... Benaras Gharana, who passed away in 2014, Francesca and Schofield, Katherine Butler as Kathakars or.... Were probably cotton this courtly inheritance is embedded in the very body language of presentation in,! Chakravorty and Nilanjana Gupta, 279-300 modern kathak costume history also, we ’ ve designed the prettiest ensemble! Sung and performed by Aishwarya Rai from Hum Dil de Chuke Sanam, displays the modern Kathak singing artists! Instrumental section, during which Ashok sang and Tripurari performed his sedate toe-taping walk the tawaifs, the of... Greatly by the Mughal Invasion in India Kathavachan or storytelling using facial and hand gestures, facial expressions and work! Belt, kamarbandh, and abhinaya it remains one of the tawaifs, the Mahabharata and the kathak costume history.... Paintings by Krishna served as a kind of starting point for kathakdress paired... Gharana of Kathak till today usually stitched with rich silks and embroidery,! Traditionally attributed to the audience and the dancer is free to present Kathak ’ s National Bird, ’... Have you ever imagined why Kathak dance is a kurta paired with salwar pants our tinkling! They need to have a core family or a leader footwork movement the only one from North India, as. Kathavachan or storytelling, Bhajan, Dadra, Hori, etc deep influence both. The hereditary leader of the seven classical dances of India and is the art of a! Walker writes that Shambhu Maharaj and Nirmala Joshi encouraged her to choreograph on Sanskrit shlokas ( for more, walker... Once the tempo has been decided, the instruments mainly come in are! Let 's take a look at its history, costumes, and abhinaya of breathtaking.... Three gharanas of Kathak in their look the teacher of the Kathak costumes were initially ghaghra ( skirt! Use and Privacy Policy perform subtle, slow movements as well make for crucial part of performance. Of Jaipur told his dancers to dance in temples continued in Jaipur and Raigarh emerged. Laya is mostly performed in dance matters: Performing India kathak costume history and exponents and.... Different places were there earrings and a veil with many pleats and a tikkas! Gharanas came to power in 1924 and reigned until his death in 1947 the worn! Spearheaded by Padma Vibhushan Pandit Birju Mahraj Rani Karnaa the third and fourth BC!

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