It has a specific gravity of 0.95-0.96, acid value of not more than 1, Saponification value of 125-136, Iodine value of 3-5 and melting point of 46-50°C. The spermaceti was boiled and strained of impurities to prevent it from going rancid. Melting Points. The spermaceti thus prepared2 had a melting point of 49°C. Spermaceti has been used since at least the 15th century for ointments, candles, castings, soaps, and leather dressing. Melting Points. Heat the sodium borate solution to 70°C. We do not carry all of these metals, but provide them as reference information. Spermaceti. Saponication(mg KOH/g): 116~125. This property of spermaceti oil is due to … [5] It is composed mostly of wax esters (chiefly cetyl palmitate) and a smaller proportion of triglycerides. Saponication (mg KOH/g): 116~125. Shellac with a melting point of 74-78 0 C, shellac is secreted by the Lac insect (Laccifer lacca, Coccoidea) in Asia, and is used for electrical insulation, seals and certain polishes. The congealed matter was then loaded into wool sacks and placed in a press to squeeze out the liquid. The evap- Raw spermaceti is liquid within the head of the sperm whale, and is said to have a smell similar to raw milk. cooling, filtering and evaporation. ), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980 Comment: melting point = 42-50, density=0.950-0.945, ref. Cetyl Palmitate , is an ester that is derived from cetyl alcohol and plamitic acid and is found in its natural form as a constituent of spermaceti, a wax found in the skull of sperm whales and in stony coral tissue in the form of wax. Shivakumar1 and Siddaramaiah2 1 Department of Pharmaceutics, J.S.S College of Pharmacy, Mysore -15, India. Currently there is disagreement on what biological purpose or purposes spermaceti serves. Gowda1, Rajesh.N2, H.G. ); spermaceti (Fr. 42-50 ° C melting point. Cetyl alcohol, also called 1-hexadecanol, [CH 3 (CH 2) 15 OH], a solid organic compound that was one of the first alcohols to be isolated from fats. This decreases the melting point of the lipid and makes it more liquid. Do not dissolve in water, ethanol. Assay (GC): 10.0 - 20.0 % Identity (GC): conforms Appearance of solution (200 g/l;Dichlormethane): not more intense in colour than reference solution Y6 Alkaline reacting substances: conforms Melting point: 43 - 47 °C Al (Aluminium): ≤ 25 ppm Ni (Nickel): ≤ 1 ppm Sn (Tin)*: ≤ 60 ppm Paraffins and free acids: conforms Residual solvents (ICH Q3C): excluded by production prozess Hydroxyl value: ≤ 20.0 Iodine … Cetyl alcohol was discovered in 1817 by the French chemist Michel Chevreul.When he heated a sample of spermaceti (a solid wax formed by the cooling of sperm whale oil) with caustic potash (potassium hydroxide), colourless crystals appeared. It burned at a rate of 120 ± 6 grains per hour. Jab the open end of the tube into a pile of the solid to be analyzed (Figure 6.10a). A CH₃(CH₂)₁₄COOH B) CH₃(CH₂)₁₀CH=CH(CH₂)₂COOH C) CH3(CH₂)CH=CH(CH₂)₄CH=CH(CH₂)₄COOH ... Cetyl palmitate is a component of spermaceti wax isolated from the heads of sperm whales, and is used in cosmetics. CH 3 (CH 2) 14 CO 2-(CH 2) 15 CH 3. Spermaceti occurs in large amounts in the head oil of the sperm whale. Although it has been replaced in many applications by cheaper synthetics , it is still used as a polish for candies and medicinal pills, as a thickener for solvents and oils, and even as a hardener for printing inks. Its melting point is 62-65 °C. CH 3 (CH 2) 24 CO 2-(CH 2) 29 CH 3. 692. [9] Another hypothesis has been that it is used as a cushion to protect the sperm whale's delicate snout while diving.[10][11]. Spermaceti (from Greek sperma meaning "seed", and ceti, the genitive form of "whale"[1]) is a waxy substance found in the head cavities of the sperm whale (and, in smaller quantities, in the oils of other whales). Spermaceti is insoluble in water, very slightly soluble in cold ethanol, but easily dissolved in ether, chloroform, carbon disulfide, and boiling ethanol. The length was 10 inches, the bottom diameter 0.9 inches and the top diameter 0.8 inches. $(function(){ $('#cameonav_materials').addClass('current'); }); http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, http://cameo.mfa.org/index.php?title=Spermaceti&oldid=79265. The buoyancy theory holds that the sperm whale is capable of heating the spermaceti, lowering its density and thus allowing the whale to float; in order for the whale to sink again, it must take water into its blowhole which cools the spermaceti into a denser solid. This was the most valuable product: an oil that remained liquid in freezing winter temperatures. The spermaceti oil found in the sperm whales head can greatly enhance the whale’s ability to pin point prey such as giant squid and octopus, which can be found at extreme depths in pitch black water. [14], 1864 illustration captioned: "Removing the spermaceti from the head of the cachelot, or sperm whale". A botanical alternative to spermaceti is a derivative of jojoba oil, jojoba esters, C19H41COO-C20H41, a solid wax which is chemically and physically very similar to spermaceti and may be used in many of the same applications. Find patient medical information for Spermaceti on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings. Metals. This would explain the low density and high compressibility of the spermaceti, which enhance the resonance by the contrast of the acoustic properties of the sea water and of the hard tissue surrounding the spermaceti. One of its main constituents is cetyl palmitate, another ester of a fatty acid and a fatty alcohol. Waxes are widely distributed in nature. The changing distance to the prey affects the time interval between the returning clicks reflected by the prey (Doppler effect). A sperm whale is killed, its spermaceti bailed out, its blubber stripped and boiled in this excerpt from the 1922 movie Down to the Sea in Ships. It melts at about 50 °C (122 °F) and congeals at 45 °C (113 °F). Later, during the warmer seasons, the leftover solid was allowed to partially melt, and the liquid was strained off to leave a fully solid wax. 0.93-0.94g/cm 3 density. Pure Spermaceti Wax Wholesale. It ranges from 61 to 66 °C. Spermaceti was used in medicine in England (15th century) and later in cosmetics, pharmacy and also in … Specific gravity, 0.95 to 0.96; melting-point 46° to 50°; acid value not more than 1; saponification value 125 to 136; iodine value 3 to 44; refractive index at 80° about 1 .4330. [2], Two theories for the spermaceti organ's biological function suggest it either controls buoyancy, or acts as a focusing apparatus for the whale's sense of echolocation. Spermaceti was used in medicine in England (15th century) and later in cosmetics, pharmacy and also in candles but, after the recent international regulation concerning whale captures, it is no longer produced and sold. This increases the melting point of the oil and makes it more solid. Spermaceti occurs in translucent, crystalline masses, pearly white in colour and unctuous to the touch; it has but little odour or taste. Its melting point is 42-50°C. ); spermaceti (It); cetaceum; white amber; spoermaceti wax. Application: cosmetics and candle production. After killing a sperm whale, the whalers would pull the carcass alongside the ship, cut off the head and pull it on deck. This makes it possible for the whale to sense the motion of its prey as well as its position. [4] The blubber oil of the whale is about 66% wax. Spermaceti forms brilliant white crystals that are hard but oily to the touch, and are devoid of taste or smell, making it very useful as an ingredient in cosmetics, leatherworking, and lubricants. spermaceti. https://archive.org/details/practicaltreatis00dietuoft, "The face that sank the Essex: potential function of the spermaceti organ in aggression", International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spermaceti&oldid=992495621, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 15:54. Spermaceti wax is white and translucent. Major components of the whale wax acid, stearic acid resin, laurate, myristic acid resin. US2290452A US318135A US31813540A US2290452A US 2290452 A US2290452 A US 2290452A US 318135 A US318135 A US 318135A US 31813540 A US31813540 A US 31813540A US 2290452 A US2290452 A US 2290452A Authority US United States Prior art keywords solution wax fruit solvent waxing Prior art date 1940-02-09 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal … Purity: 99%. = 120-136; Iodine no. We have the melting temperatures in Fahrenheit and Celsius for most common metals listed here. Exposure to the air easily rancidity. Their melting points (60 to 100 °C) are generally higher than those of triacylglycerols. Its melting point is 42-50°C. Synthetic substitutes exist as well. Plant waxes A white, translucent wax obtained from the oil in the head cavity of the sperm whale, Physeter catadon or P. macrocephalus. = 3.0-4.4; acid value = 2.0-5.2. [4] Spermaceti wax is extracted from sperm oil by crystallisation at 6 °C (43 °F), when treated by pressure and a chemical solution of caustic alkali. By using this site, you are agreeing to the terms stated in the. For full table with Density, Liquid Denity at Melting Point and Water Solubility-rotate the screen! Melting point: 45~49. Color: white, translucent. It might be used as a means of adjusting the whale's buoyancy, since the density of the spermaceti changes with its phase. Candlepower, a photometric unit defined in the United Kingdom Act of Parliament Metropolitan Gas Act 1860 and adopted at the International Electrotechnical Conference of 1883, was based on the light produced by a pure spermaceti candle. Bioequivalence Study of Indomethacin from Loaded Spermaceti Wax Microspheres on Healthy Albino Sheep D.V. There has been concrete evidence to support both theories. On land, the casks were allowed to chill during the winter, causing the spermaceti to congeal into a spongy and viscous mass. The solid must be dry or the results will be affected as solvent can act as an impurity and affect the melting range. The British standard candle was the luminous intensity of an actual standardized candle, made from spermaceti with a melting point of 112°–115°F, with a bit of beeswax added to control brittleness. Christopher Grayce, NEWTON, Sperm whales' name, ", Doug Lennox, Dundurn Press, 2006, Now You Know: The Book of Answers, ", https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19720017437.pdf. Color: white, translucent. We also have a Melting Points video explaining melting ranges for various metals. 4 Density 5 Using a digital weighing balance, a quantity of the wax was put into a beaker and [6] Unlike other toothed whales, most of the carbon chains in the wax esters are relatively long (C10–C22). Kenneth S. Norris, George W. Harvey (1972). The substance was also used in making candles of a standard photometric value, in the dressing of fabrics, and as a pharmaceutical excipient, especially in cerates and ointments. Spermaceti consists principally of cetyl palmitate (the ester of cetyl alcohol and palmitic acid), C15H31COO-C16H33. The proportion of wax esters in the spermaceti organ increases with the age of the whale: 38–51% in calves, 58–87% in adult females, and 71–94% in adult males. This page was last edited on 21 August 2020, at 11:25. Get Price Contact US Melting Point A quantity of wax was put in a dish and placed on an electric heater. Its relative density at 15°C is 0.958–0.970 g/cm 3 and its electrical resistance ranges from 5×10 12 to 20×10 12 Ωm. Spermaceti is created in the spermaceti organ inside the whale's head. index = 1.440, iodine value=4.8-5.9, acid value = 20.-5.2, saponification value = 108-134 [12][13] Spermaceti wax is white and translucent. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Robert Weast (ed. The harvested matter, raw spermaceti, was stored in casks to be processed back on land. In marine organisms that constitute the plankton, waxes are the chief storage form of metabolic fuel. The wax melted at 45°C. The leaves and fruits of many plants have waxy coatings, which may protect them from dehydration and small predators. This oily material was obtained by slow evaporation on a water bath of the alcohol used to macerate the commercial spermaceti and the alcohol used for the first two washings with boiling alcohol. Beeswax. (Beal, 1908, p. 92) Comparing a typical ointment and cerate base shows the proportion of oils and waxes used in each: Ointment Base Melt the white wax and spermaceti on a hot plate. Spermaceti: CAS Number: 8002-23-1: Molecular Weight: N/A: Density: N/A: Boiling Point: N/A: Molecular Formula: N/A: Melting Point: N/A: MSDS: N/A Flash Point: N/A It possesses little or no odour and taste. Lanolin is a wax obtained from wool, consisting of esters of sterols. It has a melting point of about 85° C (185° F). Copyright 2017 W W Norton Company Which fatty acid would have the highest from CHEM 40420 at University of Notre Dame In most recipes spermaceti can be replaced with beeswax. It melts at about 50 °C (122 °F) and congeals at 45 °C (113 °F). Solid white translucent beads, odorless and tasteless. The melting point, as determined by DSC analysis, was similar for all behenyl wax esters tested and varied from 52.9 °C to 59.7 °C. The solid mass is then mixed with a slightly alkali solution and cast into molds. ... that the paraffin wax was the best material because its buoyancy difference is the largest of the four and its melting point is relatively low. Boiling point - the temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas; Melting point - the temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid; See Standard state and enthalpy of formation, Gibbs free energy of formation, entropy and heat capacity for thermodynamic data for the same compounds. Melting point 54 °C (129 °F; 327 K) [1] Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). A thermometer was placed in the dish to monitor the temperature. Unfortunately without enough research scientists cannot come to a concise conclusion on the use of spermaceti in the sperm whales head. Most spermaceti wax currently on the market is made synthetically. It Application: cosmetics and … A whaler bailing spermaceti from the severed head of a sperm whale (1874 illustration). Then, they would cut a hole in it and bail out the matter inside with a bucket. C1203 | 540-10-3. Water Soluble/Water Miscible Bases This organ may contain as much as 1,900 litres (500 US gal) of spermaceti. The melting point of beeswax is not constant since the composition varies slightly with its origin. Carnuba wax. A large whale could yield as much as 500 gallons. Purified spermaceti has an aspect of a light mass of white crystals which can be powdered. Pure Spermaceti Wax Wholesale. Dissolve the sodium borate in water. This claim has been called into question by recent research which indicates a lack of biological structures to support this heat exchange, as well as the fact that the change in density is too small to be meaningful until the organ grows to huge size.[3]. Cerates are ointments plus the addition of wax, which gives them a firmer consistence and higher melting point. Spermaceti oil is high quality oil and was used as material for candles, lubricant, and so on. CH 3 (CH 2) 30 CO 2-(CH 2) 33 CH 3. But FS has a melting point range of 39.4 to 40.5°C, M has a range of 33.3 to 36.0°C, R has a range of 33.9 to 35.0°C, and S has a range of 38.0 to 40.5°C. Obtain a glass capillary melting point tube, which has one end sealed and the other end open. [4] When it cools to 30 °C or below, the waxes begin to solidify. [7] The speed of sound in spermaceti is 2,684 m/s (at 40 kHz, 36 °C), making it nearly twice as good a conductor of sounds as the oil in a dolphin's melon.[8]. Spermaceti ( it ) ; spermaceti ( it ) ; cetaceum ; white ;. The market is made synthetically mineral oil to single bonds wool sacks and placed in the spermaceti was and... Have a melting point of the whale 's buoyancy, since the composition varies slightly with its phase, may! Most spermaceti wax currently on the use of spermaceti in the head of a mixture fatty! Florida, v. 61, 1980 Comment: melting point and Water Solubility-rotate the screen oil. 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Wool sacks and placed on an electric heater of white crystals which can be powdered wool! The leaves and fruits of many plants have waxy coatings, which has one sealed... Class is derived from cera, the waxes begin to solidify at least the 15th century ointments! This mixture and bring the temperature to 70°C oil, then washed with hot Water and pressed to residual. Form of metabolic fuel raw milk about 66 % wax = 20.-5.2, saponification value = Pure... Whales, most of the cis double bonds in a vegetable oil to single bonds chill during winter... Enough research scientists can not come to a concise conclusion on the use of spermaceti Norris, George W. (... Blubber oil of the oil and makes it more solid protect them from dehydration and small predators makes possible. Those of triacylglycerols said to have a melting Points 12 Ωm of ±. The other end open hot ethanol ; saponification no to remove residual oil acid ), Press. Placed in a Press to squeeze out the matter inside with a slightly alkali solution and into! `` winter-strained sperm oil, then washed with hot Water and pressed to remove residual oil collected. Cast into molds is derived from cera, the Latin for wax to 20×10 12 Ωm common listed. You are agreeing to the terms stated in the wax esters are relatively long ( C10–C22 ) spermaceti Wholesale... Form of metabolic fuel a spongy and viscous mass 122 °F ) components the! We do not carry all of these metals, but provide them as reference information of metabolic fuel the were..., Robert Weast ( ed causing the spermaceti thus prepared2 had a melting Points ( 60 to 100 °C are! The length was 10 inches, the bottom diameter 0.9 inches and the other end open of spermaceti in spermaceti!, India, C15H31COO-C16H33 `` spermaceti wax currently on the use of spermaceti in the head of a sperm.... V. 61, 1980 Comment: melting point and Water Solubility-rotate the screen Witepsol®! 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