Preparatory discussions are being opened in four new areas: opening up the electricity market, participation in the European GNSS project Galileo, cooperating with the European centre for disease prevention and recognising certificates of origin for food products. In 1875, a law (RS 112) fixed the compensations owed by the city of Bern for the federal seat. Both are located within the Pennine Alps in the canton of Valais, on the border with Italy. [157] In recent years, the Swiss have brought their economic practices largely into conformity with those of the EU in many ways, in an effort to enhance their international competitiveness. Valleys running south to north trigger the best effect. [218] In international comparison the importance of these urban areas is stronger than their number of inhabitants suggests. Switzerland is a prosperous, and modern market economy with low unemployment, a highly skilled labor force, and its GDP per capita is among the highest in the world. Where Is Switzerland Located: Switzerland is located on the boarder of Europe. The Swiss climate is generally temperate, but can vary greatly between the localities,[64] from glacial conditions on the mountaintops to the often pleasant near Mediterranean climate at Switzerland's southern tip. Zürich and Geneva are regarded as global cities, ranked as Alpha and Beta respectively. The largest, Lake Geneva, is the home of the sailing team Alinghi which was the first European team to win the America's Cup in 2003 and which successfully defended the title in 2007. The Swiss refused to fight alongside the French in the name of the Helvetic Republic. Austria and Liechtenstein both lie to the east of Switzerland. [59] The population is about 8 million, resulting in an average population density of around 195 people per square kilometre (500/sq mi). After obtaining suffrage at the federal level, women quickly rose in political significance, with the first woman on the seven member Federal Council executive being Elisabeth Kopp, who served from 1984 to 1989,[42] and the first female president being Ruth Dreifuss in 1999. The first university in Switzerland was founded in 1460 in Basel (with a faculty of medicine) and has a tradition of chemical and medical research in Switzerland. The most dense rail network in Europe[56] of 5,250 kilometres (3,260 mi) carries over 596 million passengers annually (as of 2015). [citation needed]The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ) and the University of Zurich are listed 20th and 54th respectively, on the 2015 Academic Ranking of World Universities. It is surrounded by 5 countries: Austria and Liechtenstein to the east, France to the west, Italy to the south and Germany to the north. Article 11 of the constitution forbade sending troops to serve abroad, with the exception of serving the Holy See, though the Swiss were still obliged to serve Francis II of the Two Sicilies with Swiss Guards present at the Siege of Gaeta in 1860, marking the end of foreign service. LAC Arte e Cultura The building by Ticino architect Ivano Gianola offers visitors art across … The Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced gradually after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal. Prior to 1848, internal conflict was quite common, but Switzerland has enjoyed relative domestic tranquility since the mid-19th century, and its organization has remained essentially the same: it is a union of more than 3,000 communes, or municipalities, situated in 26 cantons, 6 of which are traditionally referred to as demicantons (half cantons) but function as full cantons. The result was the Act of Mediation which largely restored Swiss autonomy and introduced a Confederation of 19 cantons. These include French, Rumantsch, German and Italian. Switzerland Location in World Map. 502: Übersicht: Volksinitiative 'Moratorium Plus – Für die Verlängerung des Atomkraftwerk-Baustopps und die Begrenzung des Atomrisikos (MoratoriumPlus), "Vorlage Nr. Februar 2014: Initiative "Gegen Masseneinwanderung, EU and Switzerland agree on free movement, Switzerland referendum: Voters reject end to free movement with EU, "Vorlage Nr. 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