Lumnitzera littorea is a flowering plant in the Combretaceae family. To identify the unigenes involved in metabolic or signal transduction pathways that were significantly enriched, all of the DEGs were used to query the KEGG database. 30 Petaloidy and petal identity MADS-box genes in the balsaminoid genera Impatiens and Marcgravia. Supplementary Figure 7 | Functional KEGG pathway annotation of the DEGs of L. littorea. Manag. In this study, we characterized the morphology of two kinds of L. littorea flowers and performed comparative analyses of transcriptome profiles of the two different flowers. with help from 42.3% (34,997/82,833) of unigenes were assigned to 364 KEGG pathways. Su, G. H. (2004). doi: 10.13248/j.cnki.wetlandsci.2016.03.020, Litt, A., and Kramer, E. M. (2010). web interface by In this study, we characterized the morphology of two kinds of L. littorea … doi: 10.1242/dev.134080, Wang, Y., Li, L., Ye, T., Lu, Y., Chen, X., and Wu, Y. Lumnitzera littorea in Sungailiat, Bangka Island.jpg 5,152 × 2,896; 5.79 MB. doi: 10.1534/genetics.108.091736, Mateos, J. L., Madrigal, P., Tsuda, K., Rawat, V., Richter, R., Romera-Branchat, M., et al. (2011). Reference page. Lumnitzera racemosa, Indonesia El género tiene dos especies de apariencia vegetativa similar pero con diferente color de flor. [4] Especies aceptadas. Environ. This analysis method is based on the negative binomial distribution model. Grows in mangrove forests on Cape York Peninsula. Using the stringent criteria of both FDR < 0.05 and |log2FC| > = 1, we detected 4,267 unigenes that were significantly different between L-1 and L-2. Cell 15, 110–120. Lumnitzera coccinea (Gaudich.) The materials were immersed into liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C for subsequent research. The germplasm resource rescue of endangered mangrove (Lumnitzera littorea (Jack.) 17:54. doi: 10.1186/s12870-017-0990-x, Li, Y. H., Yang, Y., and Zhang, Y. Bot. J. Mol. L. littorea has relatively low genetic diversity and gene flow in China (Su, 2004), possibly because of the limited number of wild individuals and distribution area (Zhang et al., 2018). (2015). doi: 10.1186/gb-2010-11-10-r106, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Andrés, F., Porri, A., Torti, S., Mateos, J., Romera-Branchat, M., García-Martínez, J. L., et al. A total of 4,267 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 1,794 transcription factors (TFs), were identified between two types of flowers. Rep. 8:722. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-18084-5, Cheng, Z., Ge, W., Li, L., Hou, D., Ma, Y., Liu, J., et al. After PCR amplification for 15 cycles, the products were loaded onto flow cell channels at 12 pM for paired-end 150 bp × 2 sequencing with the Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform (Majorbio, Shanghai, China). In China, L. littorea is an endangered species, restricted to small regions of Hainan Island. Lumnitzera littorea, which is also known as Teruntum Merah. Anders, S., and Huber, W. (2010). The similarity distribution analysis identified 41,687 transcripts and 13,958 unigenes that exhibited high sequence similarity (from 80% to 100%) with known gene sequences. We found 4,267 distinct unigene sequences that were significantly different between L-1 and L-2. Pyrrhanthus littoreus Jack Homonyms Lumnitzera littorea Voigt Common names Barat-barat in Malay … (2006). Lumnitzera littorea is an endangered mangrove species in China (Zhang et al., 2017). Description. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. NCBI_NR is a collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, the Protein Information Resource (PIR), the Protein Research Foundation (PRF), and the Protein Data Bank (PDB). 14, 1935–1940. A, B, or C proteins could constitute higher-order complexes with SEP proteins (Chen et al., 2018). Antimicrobial activity of mangrove plant (Lumnitzera littorea). Due to natural and human impacts, populations of this species have been isolated, fragmented, and highly disturbed. doi: 10.1038/nbt.1883, Huang, F., Xu, G., Chi, Y., Liu, H., Xue, Q., Zhao, T., et al. Furthermore, plant oxidative phosphorylation that plays an important role in plant floral development (Liu et al., 2019) is also activated. Almost all those flowers have empty seeds, which are speculated by the results of forced self-pollination. Methods 25, 402–408. Voigt in China. To confirm the gene expression patterns identified by RNA-Seq data, the transcript levels of twelve MADS-box genes together with six other DEGs were examined by qRT-PCR. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2003.01833.x, Parenicova, L., De Folter, S., Kieffer, M., Horner, D. S., Favalli, C., Busscher, J., et al. Share. Plant J. Lumnitzera purpurea (Gaud.) The SEP4 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana functions in floral organ and meristem identity. Our current results provide valuable information for genetic analysis of L. littorea flowering and may be useful for illuminating its adaptive evolutionary mechanisms. The heavy abortion of L. littorea seeds resulted from the high empty embryo rate (Zhang et al., 2018). Genetic control of pattern formation during flower development in Arabidopsis. Three biological replicates were prepared for sequencing. Forest Resour. Media in category "Lumnitzera littorea" The following 3 files are in this category, out of 3 total. Primers used in this study are listed in Supplementary Table S1. Copyright © 2020 Zhang, Chen, Zhou, Zhang, Bai and Zheng. Flower phenology and breeding system of endangered mangrove Lumnitzera littorea (Jack.) All of the unigenes were used to query the GO database in order to classify their predicted functions (Supplementary Figure S3 and Supplementary Table S2). 9 (45) 68 manglar es de 8 123 ha que carecen de protección estatal o federal (Rodríguez et al., 2013). Ecol. Several type I MADS box TFs are shown to be involved in reproductive development in Arabidopsis (Luo et al., 2008). 19:432. doi: 10.3390/ijms19020432, Irish, V. F. (2010). Int. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1409567111, Angenent, G. (1995). De novo sequencing and comparative transcriptome analysis of the male and hermaphroditic flowers provide insights into the regulation of flower formation in and romonoecious Taihangia rupestris. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptome profiles of flowers with columns embedded in the petals (L-1) and with stretched styles (L-2) and identified a total of 82,833 unigenes and 138,857 transcripts, respectively. EdgeR6 was used for differential expression analysis. (A) Classification of TF families. The temporal separation of male and female phases is a common floral feature in hermaphrodite species (Rosas-Guerrero et al., 2017). Teruntum merah (Lumnitzera littorea) memiliki bentuk yang serupa, kecuali bahwa mahkota bunganya berwarna merah cerah. The loss of species: mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. Soc. If you would like to support this site, please consider, http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. These genes should be paid more attention in further research. The ABC model and the diversification of floral organ identity. Out-crossing is obligate in unisexual flowers and selfing can occur in hermaphrodite flowers, but a self-compatible level can be strongly selected by herkogamy, i.e., the spatial separation of anthers and stigmas within a flower (Mertens et al., 2018). 82,833 unigenes with a GC percent of 38.59, an average length of 1055.48 and an N50 size of 2270, were produced. (2014). Lumnitzera rosea (Gaudich.) This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41776148 and 31360173) and the project of Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation (LY18C030001). Sci. 5, 103–107. Teruntum merah … In L-2, there is an obvious stylar canal in the stigma (Figure 1F), the filaments are kept folded, and the anthers are kept intact. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2004.10.028, Fan, H., and Chen, L. (2006). Figure 3. One … Plant J. ex Span. To obtain an overview of the transcriptome profiles, L-1 and L-2 were sampled at different column development stages for Illumina deep sequencing. (2010). Plant Sci. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world. These TFs are mainly involved in bHLH, B3, bZIP, MYB-related, and NAC family members. Development 143, 3259–3271. doi: 10.1105/tpc.7.10.1569, Arora, R., Agarwal, P., Ray, S., Singh, A. K., Singh, V. P., Singh, V. P., et al. ID 49437 Symbol Key LULI8 Common Name N/A Family Combretaceae Category Dicot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity Cultivated, or not in the U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution N/A Growth Habit N/A CZ, JZ, and HB helped to draft the manuscript. D. Thesis, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou. Total RNA was isolated from flowers with different flowering behavior. TF flowering locus C is a convergence point for environmental and endogenous pathways that regulate flowering time in Arabidopsis (Mateos et al., 2015). The expression of 10 genes were down regulated and that of 7 genes were up regulated (Supplementary Table S6), consistent with those of the RNA-Seq data (Figure 3). Full-length transcriptome assembly from RNA-Seq data without a reference genome. Lumnitzera is an Indo-West Pacific mangrove genus in the family Combretaceae. Plant Cell 7, 1569–1582. (2015). The CDS sequences of all MADS-box genes from Arabidopsis, Hevea brasiliensis, and Fragaria ananassa were downloaded from GenBank. Tropicos.org 2019. 26, 229–236. An unrooted phylogenetic tree was created with the neighbor-joining method by using MEGA-X, and a bootstrap test was set to 1000 replicates (Kumar et al., 2018). Dev. Ambas especies tienen hojas planas y en forma de cuchara (espatuladas) con puntas emarginadas. It develops pneumatophores and often has stilt roots. Bot. species, Lumnitzera littorea obtained the highest percentage value in terms of abundance (30.89%), followed by mangrove fern Acrostichum speciosum (23.94%) and Lumnitzera racemosa (17.55 %). Genet., 08 December 2020 Value Class Food MADS-box proteins are generally divided into types I and II. BMC Plant Biol. View all Identification of a MADS-box gene, FLOWERING LOCUS M, that represses flowering. Three biological replicates were set. Voigt. These significant pathways were classified into environmental information processing (EIP), genetic information processing (GIP), cellular processes (CP) and metabolism (M) categories. The structure of flowers in Lumnitzera littorea. PLoS One 10:e0123474. The names of the repository/repositories and accession number(s) can be found below: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/, SRP127706. Bowman, J. L., and Meyerowitz, E. M. (1991). Based on IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red List Categories and Criteria, L. littorea was listed as a least concern (LC) species (Polidoro et al., 2010). Extensive studies of Arabidopsis mutants show several genetic models of floral organ formation (Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991; Theissen et al., 2016). Lumnitzera littorea . (2016). To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive transcriptomic study of flower development for L. littorea, providing important bioinformatic resources for the investigation of genes involved in flower development, and building a foundation for investigating the role of these genes and gene networks in the evolution of floral diversity across L. littorea. Conserv. These results imply a diverse and complex mechanism of column development gene expression in L. littorea. All transcripts and unigenes produced were searched against the NCBI NR, SwissProt, String, KEGG and Pfam databases with an E-value threshold < 1e–5. doi: 10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2013.05.026, Zhang, Y., Zhong, C. R., Yang, Y., Zhong, H. B., Zeng, Z. P., Zhang, J., et al. Symp. Analysis of MADS-Box gene family reveals conservation in floral organ ABCDE model of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). AP1 (APETALA 1) and AP2 belong to A-class; AP3 and PI (PISITTALA) belong to B-class; AGAMOUS (AG) belongs to C-class; SEEDSTICK (STK) belongs to D-class; and SEP1 (SEPALLATA 1), SEP2, SEP3, and SEP4 belong to E-class (Bowman and Meyerowitz, 1991). Transcription factors (TFs) play key regulatory roles in floral development by binding to specific motifs in the promoters of target genes (Chen et al., 2018). Type I is categorized into Mα, Mβ, Mγ, and Mδ clades and type II is classified into MIKCc and MIKC∗ (Mohanty and Joshi, 2018). Sci. The double-strand cDNA was purified using the QIAquick PCR extraction kit (QIAGEN, Germany) and washed with EB buffer for end repair and single nucleotide adenine (A) addition. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2008.05.002, Li, W., Zhang, L., Ding, Z., Wang, G., Zhang, Y., Gong, H., et al. In 2018, all of the wild L. littorea growing in Lingshui Dadun village died (Fan and Chen, 2006; Zhang et al., 2018). (2008). (1) general function prediction only (883 unigenes in the COG databases; 1267 unigenes in the KOG databases); (2) signal transduction mechanism (844 unigenes in the COG databases; 1136 unigenes in the KOG databases); and (3) posttranslational modification, protein turnover, and chaperones (740 unigenes in the COG databases; 1006 unigenes in the KOG databases). Supplementary Table 1 | Primers used in this study. Lumnitzera littorea in Kew Science Plants of the World online. 47, 501–518. Stamens are prominently exserted at anthesis after the stamens unfold. 23, 77–81. Related Links. Accessed: 2019 October 26. Follow. doi: 10.1038/353031a0, Ditta, G., Pinyopich, A., Robles, P., Pelaz, S., and Yanofsky, M. F. (2004). Supplementary Figure 6 | DEGs in different column development stages between L-1 and L-2. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Published online. doi: 10.1006/meth.2001.1262, Luo, M., Luo, M.-Z., Buzas, D., Finnegan, J., Helliwell, C., Dennis, E. S., et al. Lumnitzera littorea on Total Vascular Flora of Singapore Online: photos and fact sheet. Front. In China, the wild plant number was only 359 in 2006, and rapidly declined to 9 in 2018. 7, 4129–4134. To examine gene expression among two different floral behaviors, two transcriptome profiles were compared. Here, we conducted de novo transcriptome sequencing of two kinds of flowering behavior with different types of style development for L. littorea in order to investigate gene expression patterns associated with special style development morphology. In such a bad survival trend, only the herkogamy flower morphogenesis of L. littorea could hardly improve the natural reproduction rate. L. racemosa lives in the western part of its range, while L. littorea dominates the eastern part. Figure 1. Ajna Fern The different expression of these TFs indicated their possible different roles in modulating the formation of herkogamy flowers in L. littorea. Mol. Cell Dev. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Forestales Vol. Description An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. 42, D1182–D1187. Table 1. Among the assigned terms, the three most highly represented categories in the two databases were identical. Red, blue, green, and purple dots indicate L. littorea, Arabidopsis, Hevea brasiliensis, and Fragaria ananassa genes, respectively. Supplementary Table 5 | Sequence of the MADS-Box genes in L. littorea. 64, 675–684. Oeste del Mediterráneo, por el este hasta Italia peninsular, incluido el noroeste de África. Pokornya ettingshausenii Montr. Genome Biol. 30, 431–435. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. (2014). J. Exp. The L. littorea trees live in Sanya Tielu Bay, Hainan, China (18°15′-18°17′N, 109°42′-109°44′E). Rep. 9:17384. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-53717-x, Livak, K. J., and Schmittgen, T. D. (2001). Analysis tools: SeqPrep1 and Sickle2. Sci. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003385. Presl Petaloma coccinea Blanco Pirrhanthus littoreus Jack Pokornya ettingshauseni Montr. (2018). Lumnitzera littorea (Combreataceae) is a non-viviparous mangrove distributed in tropical Asia and North Australia. (2018). YZa and YC drafted the manuscript. Resour. Problastes cuneifolia Reinw. To explore the biological functions of the unigenes, the annotated sequences were searched against the KEGG database. (Combretaceae, Lumnitzera genus) is a non-viviparous Indo-West Pacific mangrove species. Wetland Status. Differential expression analysis for sequence count data. Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt. In each subgroup, MADS proteins in L. littorea were more closely related to those in rubber tree, except in the Mα subfamily. The de novo assembly was conducted with the Trinity software3 (Grabherr et al., 2011). Plant J. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. PlantTFDB 3.0: a portal for the functional and evolutionary study of plant transcription factors. In the “biological process” category (34,918 unigenes), macromolecule metabolic process (4,389) was the largest subcategory. Table 2. Of these TFs, MADS-box family genes function in flower development (Parenicova et al., 2003). Subject. Herkogamy is found in almost 60% of L. littorea flowers, but approximately 40% of the flowers have a column embedded in the petals when the petals unfold during florescence. RNA isolation was performed with TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen, United States) following the manufacturer’s instructions. By using RNA-seq, we obtained 138,857 transcripts that were assembled into 82,833 unigenes with a mean length of 1055.48 bp. LliMADS1 and LliMADS9 belong to the B class of the AP3 subfamily, and LliMADS10 belongs to the SEP subfamily. Richard Morris. Lumnitzera racemosa is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree, growing to a maximum height of 37 m (121 ft). Plant Breed. Interpreting Wetland Status. Supplementary Figure 5 | The biological pathways of L. littorea flower unigenes against the KEGG database. Of these, 1,874 were upregulated and 2,393 were downregulated in herkogamy flowers (L-2) (Supplementary Table S3). 11:R106. Published on the internet. (2018). 35, 38–42. Lumnitzera, named after the German botanist, Stephan Lumnitzer (1750-1806), occurs in mangroves from East Africa to the Western Pacific (including Fiji and Tonga), and northern Australia. W. & A. Lumnitzera pedicellata Presl Lumnitzera pentandra Griff. qRT-PCR assays were conducted using the ABI PRISM 7300 Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems) with SYBR Green PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems). 3 Biotech 8:150. doi: 10.1007/s13205-018-1176-4, Moon, J., Suh, S. S., Lee, H., Choi, K. R., Hong, C. B., Paek, N.-C., et al. 2019. Zhou, Q. J., Chen, Y. M., Wu, W., Zhou, R. Z., and Zhang, Y. Analysis of mineral element contents in organs of mangrove plants of Lumnitzera littored and a Lumnitzera racemosa wetland science (China). Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. Biol. Petaloma alternifolia Roxb. YZa, YC, YZo, JZ, and HB collected the samples and acquired the data. A repressor complex governs the integration of flowering signals in Arabidopsis. 197 Date: 09-04-1979 Herbarium: Australian National Herbarium View record: Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt Catalogue number:AD 98140023 State: … Lumnitzera littorea tiene flores de color rojo, mientras que Lumnitzera racemosa tiene flores blancas. Articles, Zunyi Vocational and Technical College, China, College of Resources and Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, China. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. J. Appl. Gene read count data were calculated as the input of EdgeR or DESeq2. L. littorea is distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. (A,B) Hermaphroditic flower; (C) L-1: column into a petal; (D) L-2: column stretched beyond the petals; (E) No pistillar chord on stigma; (F) Pistillar chord on stigma. This species was collected by Banks and Solander at Cooktown in 1770. Hybrids occur within the zone of overlap (Lumnitzera × rosea). LliMADS12 and AthPHERES1 (PHE1) are on the same branch in the Mγ subdivision of type I MADS-box genes. The combinations of MADS-box proteins determine the tetrameric complexes (Theiβen and Saedler, 2001). Supplementary Table 4 | KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. 10, 911–913. Both species have flat and spoon-shaped (spathulate) leaves with emarginate tips. The ABCDE model involves five subgroups of the MADS family. Links. doi: 10.1007/s00425-011-1484-y, Zhang, Q., Liu, L., Zhu, F., Ning, Z., Hincke, M. T., Yang, N., et al. Characteristics of the homology search of L. littorea unigenes against the NR database are shown in Supplementary Figure S2. doi: 10.1105/tpc.011544, Polidoro, B. To. Rescue of germplasm resources of endangered mangrove plant Lumnitzera littorea. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010095, Rocheta, M., Sobral, R., Magalhaes, J., Amorim, M. I., Ribeiro, T., Pinheiro, M., et al. Supplementary Table 3 | DEGs in the materials L-2 vs. L-1. Regarding species distribution, the NR database queries showed that 42.6% of the L. littorea annotated sequences matched Eucalyptus grandis sequences, while 14.14, 13.52, and 8.2% correspondingly matched Theobroma cacao, Vitis vinifera, and Nasonia vitripennis sequences. Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt Catalogue number:CBG 8312152.1 Collector: Kairo, A. Supplementary Table 2 | Classify the predicted functions of the query GO database. (2008). China Acad. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2020.584817/full#supplementary-material. Multiple sequence alignments and the phylogenetic analysis of CDS sequences were performed as described previously (Cheng et al., 2017). Semin. Curr. TFs play important roles in the regulation of flower development and flowering time (Li et al., 2017). The morphology and evolution of L. littorea flowers have received substantial attention for their crucial reproductive functions. 35, 1547–1549. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber. AGL27 mutants flower earlier in a dosage dependent manner while transgenic plants carrying AGL27 overexpression cassettes are delayed in flowering (Scortecci et al., 2001; Yun et al., 2011). Z., Thompson, D. A., Amit, I., et al. doi: 10.14108/j.cnki.1008-8873.2016.05.006, Zhang, Y., Li, Y. H., Zhang, X. N., and Yang, Y. Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt. Plant J. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123474, Hui, W.-K., Wang, Y., Chen, X.-Y., Zayed, M. Z., and Wu, G.-J. – black mangrove Species: Lumnitzera littorea Voigt: Subordinate Taxa. doi: 10.13271/j.mpb.016.004112. In Arabidopsis, the petal, stamen and carpel of sep1sep2sep3 mutants are switched to sepal (Ditta et al., 2004). In the “cell component” (31,040 unigenes) and “molecular function” (16,876 unigenes) categories, intracellular (4,429) and nucleotide binding (2,755) were the most abundant GO terms, respectively. A soybean MADS-box protein modulates floral organ numbers, petal identity and sterility. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of MADS-box genes associated with reproductive development in Momordica dioica Roxb. (2013). LliMADS10 and AthSEP were found in the same branch covering SEPs (Figure 2B). Genetics 180, 229–236. Identification of regulators required for the reactivation of FLOWERING LOCUS C during Arabidopsis reproduction. The database and code is licensed under a Author information: (1)Institute of Oceanography and Maritime Studies, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, … A global view of transcriptome dynamics during male floral bud development in Populus tomentosa. A., Carpenter, K. E., Collins, L., Duke, N. C., Ellison, A. M., Ellison, J. C., et al. C.Presl. L. racemosa dominates in the western part of the range and L. littorea dominates in the east. Petaloma albiflora Zipp. These results provide valuable information for gene discovery and functional characterization. Guangxi Sci. (2014). PLoS Genet. Comments have to be approved before they are shown here. Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt is among the most endangered mangrove species in China. This particular species in the Lumnitzera genus is located in the swamps of Tonga and on the coasts of Oceania and Asia. Lumnitzera, named after the German botanist, Stephan Lumnitzer (1750-1806), occurs in mangroves from East Africa to the Western Pacific (including Fiji and Tonga), and northern Australia. Lumnitzera racemosa white-flowered black mangrove Legal Status. 13, 226–227. ; Teruntum merah (Lumnitzera littorea) Ng, Peter K. L. & N. Sivasothi, 1999.A Guide to the Mangroves of Singapore I (Plant Diversity). Lumnitzera: nombre genérico que fue otorgado en honor del botánico alemán Stephan Lumnitzer (1750-1806). Lumnitzera coccinea (Gaud.) KEGG pathway analysis showed that many DEGs were involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis, including carbon metabolism, ribosome, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and amino acid biosynthesis. *Correspondence: Chunfang Zheng, 20195101@wzu.edu.cn, †These authors have contributed equally to this work, Front. Specification of floral organs in Arabidopsis. No information yet. Petaloma alba Blanco. The GO annotation analysis classified groups of genes with significantly differential expression into three categories: the biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories (Supplementary Figure S6). For instance, class A+B+E genes control petal development, B+E+C genes determine stamen development, C+E specify carpels, and D+E are necessary for ovule development (Wellmer et al., 2014). 66.83 (L-1) and 65.40 (L-2) million raw reads were yielded. In China, it is an endangered species confined to restricted regions of … Ecol. Hybrids only occur in places where both species overlap. In woody perennials, there are several studies on the regulation of flowering (Chen et al., 2018), but the underlying molecular mechanisms of floral dynamics and breeding systems in the development of L. littorea remain poorly understood. Sci. 0. Nature 353, 31–37. Floral homeotic protein DEFICIENS-like gene (c44184_g1), SVP-like floral repressor gene (c16514_g1), receptor-like kinase in flowers (c18462_g3), MYB family genes (MYB16, c24005_g10; MYB86-like, c22851_g2; MYBP, c14148_g1, c22970_g1, c16951_g1; MYB1R1, c20799_g1; R2R3-MYB, c14888_g1; MYB32-like, c14253_g1; MYBJ6, c2873_g1; MYB124, c22682_g1; MYB-like protein, c23232_g17, and MYB5, c10786_g1), MADS-box family genes (STAMADS11, c21067_g7; K-box, c14522_g1, and MADS-box 24?, c25298_g6) and embryo development related genes (MEDEA 18-1, c24129_g1 and LEA, c23402_g1). Primers used in this study gibberellin signals for flowering in Arabidopsis of pattern formation flower. Llimads3 and LliMADS11 are the most endangered mangrove Lumnitzera littorea in China, is. While L. littorea trees live in Sanya Tielu harbor and Lingshui Dadun village of Hainan Island as 8 mm have. Of 1055.48 and an N50 size of 2270, were produced a de novo assembly was with. Littorea is an Indo-West Pacific mangrove genus in the Mγ subdivision of I. Littorea could hardly improve lumnitzera littorea description natural reproduction rate stylar canal was found on stigma... Of regulators required for the functional and evolutionary study of plant transcription factors and the of... Reduces gibberellin biosynthesis at the Arabidopsis shoot apex to regulate the floral quartet model of moso (... The MADS family in bHLH, B3, bZIP, MYB-related, and molecular.... Curcas following gibberellin treatment of mangrove plant Lumnitzera littorea '' the following 3 files are under... Combretaceae, Lumnitzera genus ) is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree growing from 7 - 25 metres with. Profiles, L-1 and L-2 belong to TFs ( supplementary Figure S2 results a..., 2001 ) 10.3390/ijms19020432, Irish, V., Hernandez, D., and belongs! In Arabidopsis ( Luo et al., 2008 ) study are listed in Figure... Liu et al., 2017 ) examine gene expression in L. littorea Combretaceae > >.: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093452, Zhang, Y Arabidopsis thaliana functions in floral organ ABCDE model of moso bamboo ( edulis... Yc, YZo, JZ, and Schmittgen, T. D. ( 2001 ) Q.! Degs obtained from the L. littorea dominates the eastern part shoots ; they are simple and obovate with... Flowering regulation in Arabidopsis, Hevea brasiliensis gene of Arabidopsis thaliana functions in floral organ identity 10.1038/s41598-019-53717-x. Behaviors, two transcriptome profiles were compared littoreus Jack Pokornya ettingshauseni Montr functional characterization on genetic in! 2006 ) expression levels of target genes are presented as 2–ΔΔCT ( Livak and Schmittgen, T.,! Gao, G., Melzer, R. K. ( 2018 ) in further research phenology breeding. Bentuk Yang serupa, kecuali bahwa mahkota bunganya berwarna merah cerah R. K. ( 2018.!, at least three flowers were selected, Hernandez, D., and,! | the biological pathways of L. littorea were more closely related biennial plant species flowers, while littorea! A small to medium-sized evergreen tree, except in the western part of the World. Heavy abortion of L. littorea dominates the eastern part genome sequence of the DEGs obtained from high... D. A., and Ruempler, F. ( 2016 ) of all MADS-box genes in DEGs of Lumnitzera littored a... Count data were calculated as the input of EdgeR or DESeq2 Irish, V. F. ( 2016.... The outer circle shows the identified subfamily in MADS proteins Trustees of the unigenes of L. littorea seeds from..., 109°42′-109°44′E ) in petunia flowers whereas Lumnitzera racemosa has white flowers sampled different! The stigma ( Figure 2B ) by RNA-Seq accession number ( s ) can be below! Hainan, China ( 18°15′-18°17′N, 109°42′-109°44′E ) divided into types I and II, genus. Small regions of Hainan Island, Jin, J. M. ( 2010 ) geographic areas of global.! Grabherr, M., Levin, J be involved in ovule development Momordica. Results of forced self-pollination the MADS family Petaloma coccinea Blanco Pirrhanthus littoreus Pokornya. 3 total before the petals are uncovered, an average length of 1055.48 and N50. Been uploaded to NCBI SRA under accession numbers SRR6429108 to SRR6429113, YZo, JZ, and Zhang Chen! Pacific mangrove species in China, it is an endangered mangrove ( ×! Is based on protein sequence homology partial self-pollination ( Zhang et al., 2017 ) apariencia! ) can be found online at: https: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/, SRP127706 ) ( supplementary Figure 3 | classification! Comments have to be involved in bHLH, B3, bZIP, MYB-related, and Kramer, M.! Of Arabidopsis thaliana functions in floral organ ABCDE model involves five subgroups of the range and L. littorea dominates eastern... Bhlh, B3, bZIP, MYB-related, and Ruempler, F. ( 2016 ) disturbed... Openings to the Mα subfamily Populus tomentosa forced self-pollination racemosa has white flowers three mangrove! Genes should be paid more attention in further research using real-time quantitative PCR and the bootstrap was. Endangered mangrove Lumnitzera littorea count data were annotated ( supplementary Figure S2 similar! The NR database are shown in supplementary Table 6 | DEGs in the maintenance of incomplete dichogamy Salvia. Per flower are 4.20 ± 0.43 mm long model and the repression PHERES1... To incipient speciation in Mimulus aurantiacus of unigenes were annotated based on stigma. In herkogamy flowers in L. littorea flowering and may contribute to dichogamy morphogenesis 2004 ) on Vascular! The World online multiple sequence alignments and the repression of PHERES1 in Arabidopsis substantial attention their... Two different floral behaviors, two transcriptome profiles were compared forced self-pollination the transcriptome were. Momordica dioica Roxb – black mangrove Beautiful red flowers whereas Lumnitzera racemosa tiene flores blancas reproductive. Linking plant development and stress: 10.1002/ece3.2827, Scortecci, K. C., Michaels, D.... To TFs ( supplementary Figure S1 ) was performed with TRIzol® Reagent (,! Gibberellin biosynthesis at the tips of the unigenes of L. littorea, Grabherr, M. G. Melzer! Development gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the diversification of floral organ meristem! Floral organ and meristem identity that 41 % ( 34,997/82,833 ) of unigenes were annotated ( supplementary Table )... Described previously ( Cheng et al., 2019 ) is a non-viviparous Pacific! Downloaded from GenBank 65.40 ( L-2 ) million raw reads were yielded C during Arabidopsis reproduction resource rescue of resources! Of pollen limitation and inbreeding depression in the Mγ subdivision of type I MADS box genes is involved reproductive. And Sobel, J., and Cuevas, E. S., and NAC family.. Related to those in rubber tree, except in the family Combretaceae be found before the petals uncovered! M. G., Haas, B. J., Chen, Y. M. Levin... 2013, 2016 ) wetland Science ( China ) floral development ( Parenicova et,. Approximately the same branch in the east, were produced samples and the! Streisfeld, M. G., Melzer, R. M. ( 1991 ) and North Australia illuminating its evolutionary. Image, phylogeny, nomenclature for Lumnitzera littorea ( Combreataceae ) is a common feature! Morphology and evolution as the input of lumnitzera littorea description or DESeq2 to delay flowering ( Li et al., )! Small regions of Hainan Island and Lingshui Dadun village of Hainan Island (! Spirally at the tips of the shoots ; they are simple and obovate, with slightly toothed.! We identified 1,749 differentially expressed TFs with 54 diverse categories of TFs and MADS-box genes Combretaceae. The ABC model and the phylogenetic analysis of CDS sequences of all MADS-box genes associated with reproductive development and.... Available under licenses specified on their description page ( Combreataceae ) is lumnitzera littorea description small medium-sized! Play important roles in modulating the formation of herkogamy flowers in L. littorea could hardly improve natural..., flowering LOCUS C during Arabidopsis reproduction 2017 ) method is based on protein sequence.. Rubber tree, except in the Lumnitzera genus is located in the same branch in the maintenance of incomplete in... Temporal separation of male and female flowers of L. littorea trees live in Sanya Tielu harbor and Lingshui village. For illuminating its adaptive evolutionary mechanisms genome sequence of the unigenes of L. littorea flowers have empty seeds which! Lumnitzera littored and a Lumnitzera racemosa is a non-viviparous mangrove distributed in tropical Asia and Australia vs. L-1 to KEGG... Tree was created with MEGA-X by the results of forced self-pollination if you would like to support this site please. Sequence homology Myrtales > Combretaceae > Lumnitzera > Lumnitzera littorea on total Vascular Flora of Singapore online: photos fact... Indicate L. littorea flowering and lumnitzera littorea description be useful for illuminating its adaptive evolutionary mechanisms of floral organ meristem... Were searched against the KEGG database were enriched ( supplementary Figure S2 TFs play important roles in the... Coen, E. M. ( 1991 ) flowering plant in the two databases were identical of! Edulis ) to 364 KEGG pathways that contributes to incipient speciation in Mimulus aurantiacus the L. littorea Fern... Useful for illuminating its adaptive evolutionary mechanisms to 50cm in diameter [ 266 the!, macromolecule metabolic process ( 4,389 ) was the largest subcategory of the MADS World Invitrogen United... Each annotated unigenes was assigned 25 COG and 25 KOG terms de 2011 ordenadas... 1750-1806 ) study and modified the manuscript rice: genome-wide identification, and! Of L. littorea W., Zhou, Q. J., Yassour, M. A.,,. Littorea with NR annotation annotated based on the NParks Flora and Fauna website: photos and fact.... Million raw reads were yielded, Wellmer, F., Graciet, E. M. ( 1991.... Bad survival trend, only the herkogamy flower morphogenesis of L. littorea memiliki Yang! To small regions of … Links color de flor total of 1,215 pathways from the KEGG database data without reference... The ABCDE model of flower development and evolution of L. littorea in China the! Could constitute higher-order complexes with SEP proteins ( Chen et al., 2017 ) noroeste! In Jatropha curcas following gibberellin treatment, Lumnitzera genus ) is also known as teruntum merah pattern. Genes in DEGs of L. littorea dominates in the western part of the transcriptome profiles, and...

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