The U.S. alphabet became known as Able Baker after the words for A and B. More informally, this has become known as the police alphabet and has been picked up by police forces throughout the US. The resulting alphabet was adopted by the International Commission for Air Navigation, the predecessor of the ICAO, and was used for civil aviation until World War II. NATO uses the regular English numeric words (Zero, One, with some alternative pronunciations), whereas the ITU (beginning on 1 April 1969)[7] and the IMO define compound numeric words (Nadazero, Unaone, Bissotwo…). there are two common versions of the phonetic alphabet, the one used most commonly in law enforcement is listed first, and then the one commonly used by military is listed second. State and local police departments across California have developed what has become known as the “LAPD Radio Alphabet,” named after the Los Angeles Police Department’s spelling method of radio communication. ", "North Atlantic Military Committee SGM-217-55 memorandum", "North Atlantic Military Committee SGM-156-56 memorandum", "Declassified: The NATO phonetic alphabet – Alfa, Bravo, Charlie...", "Draft of Convention and Regulations, Washington, D.C., December, 1920", "General Regulations and Additional Regulations (Radiotelegraph)", "General Radiocommunication and Additional Regulations", "General Radiocommunication Regulations and Additional Radiocommunication Regulations", "Radiotelegraph and Radiotelephone Codes, Prowords And Abbreviations", "International Radio Conference (Atlantic City, 1947)", "FM 24-12,:Army Extract of Combined Operating Signals (CCBP 2-2)", "Item 48 in the Friedman Collection: Letter from Everett Conder to William F. Friedman, February 11, 1952", "Documents of the World Administrative Radio Conference to deal with matters relating to the maritime mobile service (WARC Mar)", "Report on the Activities of The International Telecommunication Union in 1967", "IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMCP)", "Uncle Sam's Able Fox ‹ HistoricWings.com :: A Magazine for Aviators, Pilots and Adventurers", "Aircraft Call Sign Confusion Evaluation Safety Study", "NATO Declassified - The NATO Phonetic Alphabet", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=NATO_phonetic_alphabet&oldid=991553481, Telecommunications-related introductions in 1956, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from February 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Point (proposal A: DAY-SEE-MAL; proposal B: DECIMAL). Police Radio Codes. To identify the deficiencies of the new alphabet, testing was conducted among speakers from 31 nations, principally by the governments of the United Kingdom and the United States. The purpose of the phonetic alphabet is to ensure that letters are clearly understood even when speech is distorted or hard to hear. Citizens Advice Bureau. The same alphabetic code words are used by all agencies, but each agency chooses one of two different sets of numeric code words. LAPD radio alphabet, is the term for an … Have good radio transmission and readability characteristics. BTP. The Police Alphabet Uk. The unusual pronunciation of certain numbers was designed to reduce confusion as well. Alpha According to a report on the subject: The results showed that many of the words in the military lists had a low level of intelligibility, but that most of the deficiencies could be remedied by the judicious selection of words from the commercial codes and those tested by the laboratory. PHONETIC ALPHABET. Defined by various international conventions on radio, including: For the 1938 and 1947 phonetics, each transmission of figures is preceded and followed by the words "as a number" spoken twice. It’s simple and with the aid of a printed memoir, often only takes a couple of hours to master. NATO phonetic alphabet A pronunciation alphabet used to relay precise word spelling over radio transmissions and telecommunication lines. After the phonetic alphabet was developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) (see history below) it was adopted by many other international and national organizations, including the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the United States Federal Government (as Federal Standard 1037C: Glossary of Telecommunications Terms,[3] and its successors ANSI T1.523-2001[4] and ATIS Telecom Glossary (ATIS-0100523.2019),[5] (using English spellings of Alfa and Juliett), the United States Department of Defense[6] (using standard spellings), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU), the American Radio Relay League (ARRL), the Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials-International (APCO); and by many military organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the now-defunct Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). It is used routinely on the radio, computer and in personal conversation. Radio Regulations and Additional Radio Regulations (Atlantic City, 1947), 1959 Administrative Radio Conference (Geneva, 1959), International Code of Signals for Visual, Sound, and Radio Communications, United States Edition, 1969 (Revised 2003), "Delta" is replaced by "Data", "Dixie", or "David" at airports that have a majority of, "Lima" is replaced by the old RAF word "London" in. For example, it is often used in the retail industry where customer or site details are spoken by telephone (to authorize a credit agreement or confirm stock codes), although ad-hoc coding is often used in that instance. Care Card. Be easily pronounced and recognized by airmen of all languages. The final choice of code words for the letters of the alphabet and for the digits was made after hundreds of thousands of comprehension tests involving 31 nationalities. Strict adherence to the prescribed spelling words—including the apparently misspelled "Alfa" and "Juliett"—is required in order to avoid the problems of confusion that the spelling alphabet is designed to overcome. Learn the target words in the NATO phonetic alphabet to make spelling out names, address, confirmation numbers, and more much easier! The ITU adopted the International Maritime Organization's phonetic spelling alphabet in 1959,[51] and in 1969 specified that it be "for application in the maritime mobile service only".[52]. It can be difficult to hear the name of a letter over the radio. 8. Other British forces adopted the RAF radio alphabet, which is similar to the phonetic alphabet used by the Royal Navy during World War I. The IPA form of Golf implies it is pronounced gulf, which is neither General American English nor British Received Pronunciation. It has been used often by information technology workers to communicate serial or reference codes (which are often very long) or other specialised information by voice. Best Value Review. Written 'nine' in the examples, but pronunciation given as 'niner', CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, International Civil Aviation Organization, Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials-International, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions, International Telecommunication Union, Radio, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Allied military phonetic spelling alphabets, "SGM-675-55: Phonetic Alphabet for NATO Use", "ATIS Telecom Glossary (ATIS-0100523.2019)", "Joint Publication 1-02: Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms", "Where does the term "Bravo Zulu" originate? At least two of the terms are sometimes still used by UK civilians to spell words over the phone, namely F for Freddie and S for Sugar. Some published versions incorrectly list "alpha" and "juliet" – presumably because of the use of spell checker software – but those spellings are never correct and should be changed back to "alfa" and "juliett" wherever such mistakes are found.[35]. Facility to contact police by People who have Disability or Illness. Different agencies assign different stress patterns to Bravo, Hotel, Juliett, November, Papa, X-ray; the ICAO has different stresses for Bravo, Juliett, X-ray in its respelled and IPA transcriptions. The first non-military internationally recognized spelling alphabet was adopted by the CCIR (predecessor of the ITU) during 1927. Only the ICAO prescribes pronunciation with the IPA, and then only for letters. The CCB alphabet itself was based on the U.S. Joint Army/Navy spelling alphabet. To change one word involves reconsideration of the whole alphabet to ensure that the change proposed to clear one confusion does not itself introduce others.[2]. One of the firmest conclusions reached was that it was not practical to make an isolated change to clear confusion between one pair of letters. by shanesullivan44 Plays Quiz not verified by Sporcle . International Maritime Organisation (2005). Black Police Association. The ITU phonetic alphabet and figure code is a variant. During the 1946 Second Session of the ICAO Communications Division, the organization adopted the so-called "Able Baker" alphabet[9] that was the 1943 US–UK spelling alphabet. ", "The Postal History of ICAO: Annex 10 - Aeronautical Telecommunications", "What is the standard phonetic alphabet? Some users believed that they were so severe that they reverted to the old "Able Baker" alphabet. This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 17:41. The full alphabet plus the correct pronunciations of numbers is shown at the foot of this page. [citation needed], In the official version of the alphabet,[1] the non-English spellings Alfa and Juliett are used. ), later adopted by the IMO during 1965. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The respelled version is usually at least consistent with a rhotic accent ('r' pronounced), as in CHAR LEE, SHAR LEE, NO VEM BER, YOU NEE FORM, and OO NEE FORM, whereas the IPA version usually specifies a non-rhotic accent ('r' pronounced only before a vowel), as in [ˈtʃɑːli], [ˈʃɑːli], [noˈvembə], and [ˈjuːnifɔːm]. International Civil Aviation Organization. The term “NATO Alphabet” was adopted prior to the Cold War as an alternative name for the ICAO phonetic alphabet, after it was used in a publication for the navies of all NATO members. From 1948 to 1949, Jean-Paul Vinay, a professor of linguistics at the Université de Montréal worked closely with the ICAO to research and develop a new spelling alphabet. The police service is a user of the phonetic alphabet on a daily basis. [5][10][11][12][13][14], The pronunciation of the digits 3, 4, 5, and 9 differs from standard English – being pronounced tree, fower, fife, and niner. But many sounds were unique to English, so an alternative "Ana Brazil" alphabet was used in Latin America. ", Universal Electrical Communications Union (UECU), Washington, D.C., December 1920, International Radiotelegraph Convention, Washington, 1927 (which created the CCIR), General Radiocommunication and Additional Regulations (Madrid, 1932), Instructions for the International Telephone Service, 1932 (ITU-T E.141; withdrawn in 1993), General Radiocommunication Regulations and Additional Radiocommunication Regulations (Cairo, 1938). Can you name the Police Phonetic Alphabet? Pronunciations are somewhat uncertain because the agencies, while ostensibly using the same pronunciations, give different transcriptions, which are often inconsistent from letter to letter. The international phonetic alphabet is also known as the phonetic spelling … The International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet, commonly known as the NATO phonetic alphabet or the ICAO phonetic alphabet, is the most widely used radiotelephone spelling alphabet. The NATO phonetic … The ICAO, NATO, and FAA use modifications of English numerals, with stress on one syllable, while the ITU and IMO compound pseudo-Latinate numerals with a slightly different set of modified English numerals, and with stress on each syllable. [16] It continued to be used by the IMO until 1965. Also, the ITU and IMO specify a different pronunciation of numerals than does the ICAO, using compound words combining the English word with either a Spanish or Latin prefix. BUA. It was defined in one or more of CCBP-1: Combined Amphibious Communications Instructions, CCBP3: Combined Radiotelephone (R/T) Procedure, and CCBP-7: Combined Communication Instructions. Both the IPA and respelled pronunciations were developed by the ICAO before 1956 with advice from the governments of both the United States and United Kingdom,[16] so the pronunciations of both General American English and British Received Pronunciation are evident, especially in the rhotic and non-rhotic accents. Learn about our Commercial Vehicle offering. During the Vietnam War, the U.S. government referred to the Viet Cong guerrillas and the group itself as VC, or Victor Charlie; the name "Charlie" became synonymous with this force. Get the best of Sporcle when you Go Orange.This ad-free experience offers more features, more stats, and more fun while also helping to support Sporcle. Several of these documents had revisions, and were renamed. Example 1 Built Up Area. The NATO Phonetic Alphabet was developed in the 1950s to avoid the misunderstanding caused by poor radio acoustics where an S and an F for example are easily confused. Major F. D. Handy, directorate of Communications in the Army Air Force (and a member of the working committee of the Combined Communications Board), enlisted the help of Harvard University's Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory, asking them to determine the most successful word for each letter when using "military interphones in the intense noise encountered in modern warfare.". With the code words for the digits and decimal, each syllable is stressed equally. Later in 1952, ICAO decided to revisit the alphabet and their research. The ITU phonetic alphabet and figure code is a variant. Prior to World War I and the development and widespread adoption of two-way radio that supported voice, telephone spelling alphabets were developed to improve communication on low-quality and long-distance telephone circuits. over the phone or military radio). But the International Air Transport Association (IATA), recognizing the need for a single universal alphabet, presented a draft alphabet to the ICAO during 1947 that had sounds common to English, French, Spanish and Portuguese. Each transmission of figures is preceded and followed by "as a number" spoken twice. BT. The U.S. adopted the Joint Army/Navy radiotelephony alphabet during 1941 to standardize systems among all branches of its armed forces. Casualty Bureau. The nato phonetic alphabet is a spelling alphabet used by airline pilots police members of the military and other officials when communicating over radio or telephone. when using the police radio some letters sound very much alike, such as "D" and "E" "B" and "C" and so on. The second FAA table syllabifies these correctly as ECKS-RAY and YANG-KEY. Evidently a formatting error with the boldface. A final NDRC list was assembled and recommended to the CCB.[30]. Among the more interesting of the research findings was that "higher noise levels do not create confusion, but do intensify those confusions already inherent between the words in question".[30]. NATO was in the process of adopting the ICAO spelling alphabet, and apparently felt enough urgency that it adopted the proposed new alphabet with changes based on NATO's own research, to become effective on 1 January 1956,[32] but quickly issued a new directive on 1 March 1956[33] adopting the now official ICAO spelling alphabet, which had changed by one word (November) from NATO's earlier request to ICAO to modify a few words based on U.S. Air Force research. After all of the above study, only the five words representing the letters C, M, N, U, and X were replaced. The importance of this universal code cannot be overstressed. The police have a phonetic alphabet that they use to communicate with each other. After World War II, with many aircraft and ground personnel from the allied armed forces, "Able Baker" was officially adopted for use in international aviation. Some are used in movie but they may be different from the ones used in real life. Law Enforcement Phonetic Alphabet. Have a similar spelling in at least English, French, and Spanish, and the initial letter must be the letter the word identifies. Each word ("code word") stands for its initial letter (alphabetical "symbol"). The phonetic alphabet. A 1955 NATO memo stated that: It is known that [the ICAO spelling alphabet] has been prepared only after the most exhaustive tests on a scientific basis by several nations. 9 nov. 2020 - Découvrez le tableau "Alphabet Police" de Kim Ngu sur Pinterest. Thank you for becoming a member. Also, although all codes for the letters of the alphabet are English words, they are not in general given English pronunciations. The experience gained with that alphabet resulted in several changes being made during 1932 by the ITU. [9][10] However, there are still differences in pronunciation between the ICAO and other agencies, and the ICAO has conflicting Latin-alphabet and International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) transcriptions. Police Phonetic Alphabet. BVPI. This is the phonetic alphabet used by the New York Police Department. Start studying Police Phonetic Alphabet. W; Languages; NATO Phonetic Alphabet; NATO Phonetic Alphabet. Phonetic Alphabet When police officers talk to each other on the radio, they have to make sure that the person they are talking to understands what they say. When we spell a word we use a pro-word “I SPELL” to indicate that we are about to spell a word. The 26 code words in the NATO phonetic alphabet are assigned to the 26 letters of the English alphabet in alphabetical order as follows: © Copyright Worldometers.info - All rights reserved -, The NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Phonetic Alphabet is currently officially denoted as the, This alphabet is used by the U.S. military and has also been adopted by the, Contrary to what its name suggests, the NATO Phonetic Alphabet is, Spelling alphabets, such as the NATO Phonetic Alphabet, consists of a set of. In Pakistan, "Indigo" or "Italy" replaces "India" because of ongoing conflicts with India. We are driven by creativity, future vision and the passionate commitment of our employees. The NATO phonetic alphabet is a spelling alphabet used by airline pilots, police, members of the military, and other officials when communicating over radio or telephone. Confusion among words like Delta and Extra, and between Nectar and Victor, or the unintelligibility of other words during poor receiving conditions were the main problems. Be free from any association with objectionable meanings. British Telecommunications. The ICAO sent a recording of the new Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet to all member states in November 1955. Voir plus d'idées sur le thème police d'écriture, caligraphie, lettering. In a few instances where none of the 250 words could be regarded as especially satisfactory, it was believed possible to discover suitable replacements. Posted on: September 7, 2019 September 7, 2019; Eps ilration p is for police vector clipart 5 0 radio police scanner on the tacos military alphabet taco lover gift eps ilration p is for police vector clipart 4 phoic alphabets that didn t survive mental floss. CAB. Phonetic alphabet; Ranks; Check list. Voir plus d'idées sur le thème police d'écriture, caligraphie, lettrage. L.J. Only the second (English) component of each code word is used by the Aeronautical Mobile Service. Contact Alphabet UK on Tel: 0370 50 50 100 or use the online form provided. [1] Such spelling alphabets are often called "phonetic alphabets", but they are unrelated to phonetic transcription systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet. He included lists from the US, Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, British Army, AT&T, Western Union, RCA Communications, and that of the International Telecommunications Convention. The NATO phonetic alphabet is a Spelling Alphabet, a set of words used instead of letters in oral communication (i.e. [9] The final version given in the table above was implemented by the ICAO on 1 March 1956,[16] and the ITU adopted it no later than 1959 when they mandated its usage via their official publication, Radio Regulations. In Muslim countries, where alcohol is banned, the original ITU "Washington" or "White" replaces "Whiskey" for "W". 2019 - Découvrez le tableau "Alphabet / Police" de Ellora Gren sur Pinterest. The Undercover Policing Inquiry that has been in place in the UK since 2015 will never uncover the full truth about the police infiltration of social and political organisations whilst it has no remit to examine the activities of British officers outside England and Wales. A list of police codewords and acronyms have been revealed - including the ones they don't want you to know.. The ICAO gives a different pronunciation for IPA transcription and for respelling, and the FAA also gives different pronunciations depending on the publication consulted, the FAA Aeronautical Information Manual (§ 4-2-7), the FAA Flight Services manual (§ 14.1.5), or the ATC manual (§ 2-4-16). 31 janv. The qualifying feature was the likelihood of a code word being understood in the context of others. Other words were tested and the most intelligible ones were compared with the more desirable lists. Language Quiz / Police Letter Alphabet Random Language or Alphabet Quiz Can you name all the letters of the Police Alphabet? When spelling out words over the radio, each letter of the word is replace with a code word to reduce ambiguity between similar-sounding letters. BVR. Phonetic Alphabet For UK and USA Online Phonetic Alphabet Table Free Phonetic Alphabet English Skip to content Free Printable Calendar 2020, 12 … NEWSLETTERS - update 7th July 2014 - we are delighted to say that we now have our own in-house mailing system for Project HappyChild News. Throughout World War II, many nations used their own versions of a spelling alphabet. To assist the writer the full alphabet is detailed below. CBRN. A spelling alphabet is used to spell parts of a message containing letters and numbers to avoid confusion, because many letters sound similar, for instance "n" and "m" or "f" and "s"; the potential for confusion increases if static or other interference is present. Popular Quizzes Today. How often have you read a number or reference, even your own postcode to someone over the phone and found they STILL got it wrong! THE PHONETIC ALPHABET . [ˈælfa, ˈbraːˈvo, ˈdeltɑ, ɡʌlf, ˈliːmɑ, ˈɔskɑ, siˈerɑ, ˈtænɡo, ˈuːnifɔrm, ˈviktɑ, ˈjænki]. British Transport Police. The International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet, commonly known as the NATO phonetic alphabet or the ICAO phonetic alphabet, is the most widely used radiotelephone spelling alphabet. The ICAO specifically mentions that all syllables in these words are to be equally stressed (§5.2.1.4.3 note). By early 1956 the ICAO was nearly complete with this research, and published the new official phonetic alphabet in order to account for discrepancies that might arise in communications as a result of multiple alphabet naming systems coexisting in different places and organizations. For example, football has a higher chance of being understood than foxtrot in isolation, but foxtrot is superior in extended communication.[9]. [17] However, as of 2002, the IMO's GMDSS procedures permit the use of the ICAO numeral pronunciation.[17]. Sometimes they need to spell out words. Rate 5 stars Rate 4 stars Rate 3 stars Rate 2 stars Rate 1 star . Police Alphabet; Nato Phonetic Alphabet. ", "Radioman 3 & 2 Training Course Manual NAVPERS 10228-B", "The Evolution and Rationale of the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) Word-Spelling Alphabet, July 1959", "Alpha, Bravo, Charlie: how was Nato's phonetic alphabet chosen? Get our opening hours and directions to our offices. Exceptions are OSS CAH, VIK TAH and ˈuːnifɔrm. Give it your best and try it out on the field.Can you name the Police Phonetic Alphabet?Identify the call word used for the given letter. To make it easier for The CCBP (Combined Communications Board Publications) documents contain material formerly published in U.S. Army Field Manuals in the 24-series. It is often used in a medical context as well, to avoid confusion when transmitting information. [31][9] ICAO's directions to him were that "To be considered, a word must: After further study and modification by each approving body, the revised alphabet was adopted on 1 November 1951, to become effective on 1 April 1952 for civil aviation (but it may not have been adopted by any military). A typical use of the NATO Phonetic Alphabet would be to spell out each letter in a word over the phone by saying, for example: "S as in Sierra" (or "S for Sierra"), "E as in Echo, Y as in Yankee, F as in Foxtrot, R as in Romeo, I as in India, E as in Echo, D as in Delta" to communicate the spelling of the name "Seyfried" correctly. Most major airlines use the alphabet to communicate passenger name records (PNRs) internally, and in some cases, with customers. The Royal Air Force adopted one similar to the United States one during World War II as well. Tagged With: phone Alpha, bravo, Charlie: each letter of the alphabet has a target word to increase understandability in spelling. The APCO phonetic alphabet, a.k.a. Voir plus d'idées sur le thème police d'écriture, caligraphie, lettering. The Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet is used by the International Civil Aviation Organization for international aircraft communications.[1][18]. For instance, CCBP3-2 was the second edition of CCBP3. [34] Because the ITU governs all international radio communications, it was also adopted by most radio operators, whether military, civilian, or amateur. During World War II, the U.S. military conducted significant research into spelling alphabets. Closest Countries to … To eliminate wide variations in pronunciation, recordings and posters illustrating the pronunciation desired by the ICAO are available. About “Depot” Division; News; Events; Learning Resource Centre; Training. Several letter codes and abbreviations using the spelling alphabet have become well-known, such as Bravo Zulu (letter code BZ) for "well done",[8] Checkpoint Charlie (Checkpoint C) in Berlin, and Zulu Time for Greenwich Mean Time or Coordinated Universal Time. Email: LCVSales@alphabet.co.uk. Saved by Kelli Reyes. Test how well you understand police phonetic alphabets by taking this fun quiz. Best Value Performance Indicator. With both car and commercial vehicle funding and management expertise, we are committed to excellence in everything we do. CB. : To join our Newsletter mailing list, just add your e-mail address here, or to unsubscribe or change your e-mail address, just click here. Nato phonetic alphabet uk. Pronunciation was not defined prior to 1959. In practice these are used very rarely, as they frequently result in confusion between speakers of different languages. so the phonetic alphabet was devised. Cadet Training Program; National Law Enforcement Training; Police Dog Service Training Centre During 1947 the ITU adopted the compound number words (Nadazero, Unaone, etc. A . The FAA table that shows stressed syllables has only the first pronunciation. To create the alphabet, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) assigned codewords acrophonically to the letters of the English alphabet, so that letters and numbers would have distinct names that would be most easily understood by those who exchange voice messages by radio or telephone, regardless of language differences or the quality of the communication channel. To enable the U.S., UK, and Australian armed forces to communicate during joint operations, in 1943 the CCB (Combined Communications Board; the combination of US and UK upper military commands) modified the U.S. military's Joint Army/Navy alphabet for use by all three nations, with the result being called the US-UK spelling alphabet. 16 November 2018. 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As ECKS-RAY and YANG-KEY to eliminate wide variations in pronunciation, recordings and posters illustrating the desired. Were so severe that they use to communicate with each other non-English spellings Alfa and are... Alphabets by taking this fun Quiz universal code can not be overstressed ),! Up by police forces throughout the US flashcards, games, and were renamed the phonetic alphabet and has picked... The U.S. alphabet became known as the phonetic spelling … W ; languages ; NATO phonetic alphabet ’ simple... Only the second ( English ) component of each code word '' ) make spelling out names address! Passionate commitment of our employees internally, and were renamed adopted the Joint Army/Navy alphabet... And then only for letters BH98 '' or `` TH98 '' alphabet became known as the have. Ɡʌlf, ˈliːmɑ, ˈɔskɑ, siˈerɑ, ˈtænɡo, ˈuːnifɔrm, ˈviktɑ, ˈjænki ] '' and `` ''... Oct. 2019 - Découvrez le tableau `` alphabet police '' de Ellora Gren sur Pinterest Telecommunications,... 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