One of such important natural resources is potash, which is also known as kaun, akanwu or kanwa. 11, No. 1. Nig. It is highly useful in the enhancement of crop formulation and quality. Akanwu is also added in ewedu and okro soup during preparations in order to boost the viscosity as well as to increase the greenness and texture of the vegetables. The Potash Twins attend "Sherman's Showcase" Premiere Party on July 30, 2019 in Los Angeles, California. All plant foods (fertilisers) have printed on their packs the proportion of N, P, & K that are in the packs. For crops that prefer a nitrate source to an ammonium source of nitrogen, this potash source can be a good option. REFERENCES Journal of Nutri. However, after many years of intensive cropping and repeated nutrient removal during harvest, many fields now require regular inputs of potash to maintain their productivity. (2008), Evaluation of Toasted, Cooked and Akanwu-Cooked Sword Bean Meal in Place of Soya Bean Meal in Broiler Starter Diets. I used it very sparingly along with bone meal and blood meal in an 'in-ground' garden I had in St. Louis, where the clay content of the soil was very high. Clearly, this practice is no longer practical and is not environmentally sustainable. 'Potash': How to Get the Right Kind of K in your N-P-K Q: Is 'muriate of potash' safe to use as an additive in the raised bed gardens I'll be planting next spring? degree in Agronomy/Soils at Brigham Young University, and his Ph.D. in Soil Science at the University of California, Riverside. Lactation PurposesStudies reveal that potash is capable of increasing breast milk production and quality in new mothers for example, the Hausa women use the potash to prepare special porridge with millet and guinea corn, which they often take after childbirth in order to boost breast milk production. There are different types of potash namely; potassium sulfate (K2SO4), sulphate of potash, arcanite, arcanuni, sal duplicatum, vitriolic tartar, Glaser's salt, sal polychrestum Glaseri or potash of sulfur. Potash is crucial for agriculture since it improves yield, disease resistance, texture, color, nutrient value, and taste of the food. 44-60. 4] Buchanan, K. M and Purgh, J. Studies reveal that the potash (akanwu) can act as an antacid thus can be used for constipation and flatulence relief. Nig. Acts as a Preservative A. Pregnant women are highly advised to refrain from taking any kind of potash concoction.8. We provide every day and specialty items in a smaller, easy in-and-out format. Remember to always consult your healthcare provider before making any health-related decisions or for counselling, guidance and treatment about a specific medical condition. It is used as a drying agent in food, used as an animal feed ingredient, it is used to tenderize tripe, but its use in cooking should be only done with care, because too much can cause a toxic reaction. Potash can be used for preparing tobacco snuff. This fertilizer is clearly not an artificial or manufactured chemical, since it comes directly from the earth and is simply recycled through very long geological processes. Sulfur-deficient plants appear light green and have reduced yields and quality. Phone: (312) 266-4200 Potassium chloride is usually the least expensive source of potash. International Journal of Poultry Science, 7: 480-484. When the potassium supply is limited, plants have reduced yields, poor quality, utilize water less efficiently, and are more susceptible to pest and disease damage. 137-139. DISCLAIMERThis post is for enlightenment purposes only and should not be used as a replacement for professional diagnostic and treatments. It is used for mixing water and oil while preparing local dishes like abacha, ugba and nkwobi. The term “potash” refers to potassium compounds and potassium-bearing materials. Rob Mikkelsen is the Vice President of Communications and North American Program Director for the International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI). While potash is technically a naturally occurring substance, only certain kinds of potassium fertilizers containing potash are considered organic. The potash of sulfur, which is a non-flammable white crystalline salt is chemically used for producing fertilizers due to its potassium and sulfur content. Dr. Why use Kaun/ Potash in Nigerian food Akaun is added to soups, legumes, meat and sauces usually for three reasons: to increase Viscosity in soups like Okra and Ewedu (jute) , to faster This process continues today in places such as the Great Salt Lake and the Dead Sea. Over 350 million years ago, the huge Devonian Sea was slowly drying up in the area of Central Canada and northern U.S., leaving behind concentrated salts and minerals. There are many excellent potash sources available for meeting the nutrient requirements of crops. Cough Treatment Some of the most popular include: Potassium chloride (Muriate of potash)     (KCl; 0-0-60), Potassium sulfate (Sulfate of potash)    (K2SO4; 0-0-50-18S), Potassium-magnesium sulfate     (K2SO4-2MgSO4; 0-0-22-22S-11Mg), Potassium thiosulfate     (K2S2O3; 0-0-25-17S). Adding soluble potash (K2O) to the soil helps grass withstand stress, drought, and disease. Potassium is an important mineral required for human health. Subscribe to our e-mail newsletter to receive updates. The general guideline is to limit your intake of high potassium foods, and to choose acceptable potassium foods more often instead. OGIRI OKPEI (CASTOR SEED) - AN AROMATIC SEASONING TO SPICE-UP YOUR MEALS, NEGRO PEPPER (UDA SEED) - AN EXCEPTIONAL SPICE, 2 Tier Spice Rack with 16 Schwartz Spices, 18 MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR TREATING DIABETES, 18 FASCINATING BENEFITS OF METHI KE DANE (FENUGREEK). Potash in soil is the initial source for the uptake in plants. Historical Use: Potash was once used in German baked goods. Toothache Relief A., Ajibade O. M., Igunbor C. M. and Eloka C. C. V. (2015), Degenerating effects of potash (Kaun-K2co3) on the kidney: Unabated continental challenge to human health in Nigeria, Annals of Biological Research, 2015, 6 (3) pp.12-17. This gives baked goods lift. When making a decision on which source to use, choose the one that meets your needs and provides the accompanying anion that will help keep your high-yielding crops in top shape. Kaun potash (akanwu) solution can be used as a preservative. In the Pacific coast states, over two pounds of potash are removed on average for every pound returned to the field as fertilizer. 12. The food industry utilizes potash (potassium carbonate) as a general-purpose additive. All Rights Reserved. Ideal for livestock and pet food, Intrepid produces feed-grade quality potash, salt and Intrepid Trio (sulfate of potash magnesia). The soil nutrients must be replenished every year; therefore, potash is usually be added in potassium deficient soil. In gardening, the words potash and potassium are interchangeable. Journal of Nutri. 90-95% of potash is used in agriculture as fertilizer The countries that Canpotex serves contain approximately 60% of the world's population. International Journal of Poultry Science, 7: 480-484. Some of the most popular include: Potassium chloride (Muriate of potash) (KCl; 0-0-60) Potassium sulfate (Sulfate of potash) (K2SO4; 0-0-50-18S) Potassium-magnesium sulfate (K2SO4-2 Mg SO4; 0-0-22-22S-11 Mg) Potassium thiosulfate (K2S2O3; 0-0-25-17S) Potassium nitrate (KNO3; 13-0-44) Potassium Nitrate: An abundant supply of nitrogen is essential for all high-yielding crops. You'll sometimes see it in liquid form as well. Potash is various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form. However, up to 60 maund per acre of wheat can be acquired by modern methods of cultivation. Fertilizer Production These ancient marine salts are now recovered and used in a variety of useful ways, with the majority being used as potassium fertilizer. Functions of Potash and Pearlash . Dr. Mikkelsen is well known for his research and expertise in nutrient management, and has authored and co-authored numerous publications. And if so, do you recommend it? Some traditionalists do use potash (akanwu) for preparing herbal medicines and concoctions. 5] Ochei, K. C., Omeh, Y. N., Obeagu, E. I. and Obarezi, T. N. (2014), Effect of Potash on the Hearts of Rabbits, Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, Volume 9, Issue 5, PP 33-37. As the world population continues to grow and diets improve, it is paramount … Pp. (1988), Effects of consumption of "kanwa" in food and water on certain physiological states of rats. 44-60. Along with nitrogen and phosphorus, potassium is one of the essential macro-nutrients required in the largest quantities by plants for growth and vigor. 11. The foods produced are often high in potassium, such as bananas, and afford a useful source for human consumption. (2011), Tiro (Antimony-Sulphide) And Potash As Local Substitutes To Imported Barite And Lignosulphate In Drilling Mud Weighting Additives, International Journal of Engineering & Technology, Vol. Potash is also used in brewing beer. Potash (akanwu) is a type of lake salt (sodium carbonate) that is dry and hydrated in nature. Potash is easy to make, but it does take some time and a little bit of effort. The most common type of potash is potassium chloride (KCl). The primary difference is in the companion nutrients that come along with the potassium. Although the potash is used for certain food preparations however, studies reveal that it is not suitable for our health thus curtailing the level of consumption is highly advisable. Potash (akanwu) is usually covered by shallow water by approximately less than 2 ft deep. Ninety-five percent of the world's potash is used on farms to fertilize the … HI THERE.. It has historically been used for making soap, glass. It has wide application to fruit and vegetables, rice, wheat and other grains, sugar, corn, soybeans, palm oil and cotton, all of which benefit from the nutrient's quality-enhancing properties. UMHS Patient Food and Nutrition Services - 1 - Potassium Content of Foods This is a guide to help you as you watch the amount of potassium you eat each day. A., Ajibade O. M., Igunbor C. M. and Eloka C. C. V. (2015), Degenerating effects of potash (Kaun-K2co3) on the kidney: Unabated continental challenge to human health in Nigeria, Annals of Biological Research, 2015, 6 (3) pp.12-17. Diets high in potassium and low in sodium have been shown to be beneficial for avoiding high blood pressure. Funigicidal Properties (1988), Effects of consumption of "kanwa" in food and water on certain physiological states of rats. Since potassium is not stored in the body, it is necessary to continually replace this nutrient on a regular basis with potassium-rich foods. At Potash Markets, we know shopping for the freshest foods can be a hassle. 6] Oyeleke, O. 4] Buchanan, K. M and Purgh, J. Potash soap is a soft soap made from the lye leached from wood It’s little wonder that K deficiency is becoming a more common occurrence in agricultural fields. But these high rates of nutrient removal are not usually being matched with fertilization. Recent research has demonstrated that many crops respond favorably to chloride applications with greater yield and quality. Pp. In fertilizer terminology, potassium oxide is called potash. Potassium that comes out of the potash can help your plants in many ways, from the roots till the tip of the flower as well. K is the symbol used for potassium percentage content on fertilizer labels, to distinguish it from phosphorus. High yielding crops remove large amounts of potassium in the harvested portion of the crop. 4. Know the uses, learn the right way, apply it, and you'll be surprised. 17 Uses of Potash in Agriculture Fields - Plants Growth is actually very beneficial for your plants growth. 2. All rights reserved. The potassium in all these fertilizers is identical and this nutrient will be rapidly available to the plant regardless of the source. Sulfate that is present in potash fertilizers is immediately available for plant uptake. Palmfruit ashes (ngu), ashes of roasted peels of unripe plantain and baking soda are an healthier alternative to potash. and Onwudike, O.C. IT IS GREAT TO MEET YOU.. Sci;4: Pp. (2008), Evaluation of Toasted, Cooked and Akanwu-Cooked Sword Bean Meal in Place of Soya Bean Meal in Broiler Starter Diets. London, University of London Press. Potassium is essential for plant health and there must be an adequate supply in the soil to maintain good growth. Potassium-Magnesium Sulfate: Because its vital role in chlorophyll, magnesium deficiency is first exhibited by yellow leaves in the lower part of the plant. 10. The name derives from the collection of wood ash in metal pots when the beneficial fertiliser properties of this material were first recognised many centuries ago. The name derives from pot ash, which refers to plant ashes soaked in water in a pot, the primary means of manufacturing the product before the industrial era. Using Potash in the Garden The addition of potash in soil is crucial where the pH is alkaline. Potash Market Locations. Fire Extinguishing Purposes State Street Location 875 N. State Street, Chicago, IL 60610. Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) all but replaces it in modern recipes for traditional German baked goods. All in all, 95 percent of the world’s potash supply is used to grow food. (Photo by Tommaso Boddi/Getty Images for AMC) Culture Entertainment Food Potash and phosphate are both used to produce fertilizers, which are becoming increasingly important as demand for food grows.. Akanwu is also added in ewedu and okro soup during preparations in order to boost the viscosity as well as to increase the greenness and texture of the vegetables. Potassium is important in the synthesis of some plant components and the regulation of processes, including the more efficient use of nitrogen by the plant. Potash is important for agriculture because it improves water retention, yield, nutrient value, taste, color, texture and disease resistance of food crops. Remember to always consult your healthcare provider before making any health-related decisions or for counselling, guidance and treatment about a specific medical condition. 3] Bankole J. K., Ngokere A. Akanwu (potash) can be ground and mixed with water before applying on tooth to relieve toothache. Prior to his work with IPNI, he served as the Professor of Soil Science at North Carolina State University in Raleigh and Soil Chemist at the National Fertilizer Development Center in Muscle Shoals, Alabama. 6. There are different types of potash namely; potassium sulfate (K2SO4), sulphate of potash, arcanite, arcanuni, sal duplicatum, vitriolic tartar, Glaser's salt, sal polychrestum Glaseri or potash of sulfur. Potassium is a natural plant food because fertilizers such as potassium chloride and potassium sulfate are widely found in nature. 7. In food production, potassium is removed from the soil in harvested crops and must be replaced in order to maintain future crop growth. Like any soluble fertilizer, salt-induced damage can result if large amounts are placed in close proximity to seeds or seedlings. Studies reveal that the akanwu, which is also known as potassium bicarbonate can be used as a fire suppressant for fighting fire thus can sometimes be found in some dry fire extinguishers. Potash is the common name given to a group of minerals containing potassium that are typically used in agriculture to help plants grow. In agriculture and horticulture potash is the common term for nutrient forms of the element potassium (K). The use of potash is extremely helpful in increasing the weight of wheat grains, protecting the crop from diseases and preventing it from falling. The names caustic potash, potassa, and lye are frequently used for potassium hydroxide (see potassium). 137-139. Studies reveal that potash is capable of increasing breast milk production and quality in new mothers for example, the Hausa women use the potash to prepare special porridge with millet and guinea corn, which they often take after childbirth in order to boost breast milk production. It is a standard ingredient in most fertilisers and you can also get it on its own in a crystalline form, which you can dissolve in water, and in a granular, slow release form which you sprinkle directly around plants. 2] Akinmutimi, A.H., Ojewola, G.S., Abasiekong, S.F. So make sure to use the latest technology, including the use of potash… 7:7:7, this being a balance fertiliser, 10:5:3: a plant growth feed & 5:5:12 is a high potash feed or Potash Fertiliser. So which one should you use? Some of the types of minerals present in this salt are; Polyhalite, Leonite, Kainite, Glaserite, Schönite, Langbeinite and potassium sulfate, which can be separated, Potash (Kaun) is edible and is usually used for cooking pulses like, It is used for mixing water and oil while preparing local dishes like. He currently resides in Merced, California. There are many excellent sources of potassium that can be used to sustain a productive and healthy ecosystem and replenish the soil’s nutrient reserve. 3. This type of lake salt usually forms and shoots out from the soil during rainy season but tends to fall off, solidifies and get dried during the dry season. 03, p.139. Traffic, big stores, and long lines can make shopping a frustrating chore. Potash Is in Your Food. Some of the types of minerals present in this salt are; Polyhalite, Leonite, Kainite, Glaserite, Schönite, Langbeinite and potassium sulfate, which can be separated from the minerals such as kainite. Sci;4: Pp. Similarly, a potato yield of 450 cwt/A removes 500 lb K2O, and harvesting 40 ton/A of tomatoes will take off over 450 lb K2O/A. 11, No. Subscribe to Global Food Book's email updates and get a FREE eBook on benefits of organic food. London, University of London Press. Potash (akanwu) contains fungicidal properties thus is capable of being used for cleaning purposes and preventing molds and mildews. Potassium chloride has been affirmed as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a multipurpose ingredient in foods with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice (cGMP), which means food manufacturers can use it at levels necessary to achieve its intended technological effect in a food product. Join me on this journey to discover, share and grow knowledge on recipes for life from around the globe. The Potash Twins (Ez & Dee) are the hosts of Food Network’s digital original series Takeout Twins. Studies reveal that potash can act as an expectorant thus capable of curing cough. 9. and Onwudike, O.C. Dr. Mikkelsen received his B.S. KCl is also known as muriate of potash (MOP) or sylvite, a naturally occurring mineral. 1] Adebayo, T. A. and Imokhe, O. Potassium Chloride: The importance of chloride is frequently overlooked, but it is an essential nutrient for plant growth. Studies reveal that the akanwu salt is the second most popularly used salt in Nigeria however, the akanwu has a very low quantity of potassium comparable to sodium. Potassium permanganate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KMnO 4 and composed of K + and MnO − 4.It is a purplish-black crystalline solid, that dissolves in water to give intensely pink or purple solutions. 6] Oyeleke, O. Potash is a naturally occurring substance that occurs when wood is burned away or can be found in mines and the ocean. REFERENCES. Specifically, potassium helps maintain turgor pressure in the cells of the plant, resulting in a positive infl… 03, p.139. 3] Bankole J. K., Ngokere A. In many parts of the world, agricultural soils are gradually becoming depleted of potash. 1] Adebayo, T. A. and Imokhe, O. 5] Ochei, K. C., Omeh, Y. N., Obeagu, E. I. and Obarezi, T. N. (2014), Effect of Potash on the Hearts of Rabbits, Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, Volume 9, Issue 5, PP 33-37. In most instances, it is added as a source of food seasoning. Potash (potassium carbonate) is a useful substance. This post is for enlightenment purposes only and should not be used as a replacement for professional diagnostic and treatments. © 2020 Global Food Book. Privacy Policy: We dislike SPAM E-Mail. Sources of Potash. (2011), Tiro (Antimony-Sulphide) And Potash As Local Substitutes To Imported Barite And Lignosulphate In Drilling Mud Weighting Additives, International Journal of Engineering & Technology, Vol. Medicinal Purposes An alkaline salt, pearlash (chemically known as potassium carbonate K 2 CO 3) reacts with water or an acid such as sour milk, fruit juice, or molasses to create carbon dioxide. I'm Blessing and I'm glad to meet you. We pledge to keep your email safe. Culinary PurposesPotash (Kaun) is edible and is usually used for cooking pulses like beans, akidi (black Mexican beans), fiofio (cowpea beans) etc in order to tenderize the pulses so easily. Potash fertilizer is also beneficial in order to increase the pH scale in soil, improve … C (1961), Land and People in Nigeria, 7th Imp. Abortion Induction Potash (Kaun) is edible and is usually used for cooking pulses like beans, akidi (black Mexican beans), fiofio (cowpea beans) etc in order to tenderize the pulses so easily. Constipation Relief Potassium Sulfate: All crops require an adequate supply of sulfur to develop proteins and enzymes. The amount of potash that farmers use is directly related to the amount of food that our world consumes. Potash fertilizer is essential for plants for its water uptake and for synthesizing plant sugars to be used as food. High-potassium foods (more than 200 mg per serving): 1 medium baked potato, with skin (925) 1 baked medium sweet potato, with skin (450) ½ cup of tomato or vegetable juice (275), or 1 medium raw tomato (290) And has authored and co-authored numerous publications natural plant food because fertilizers such as bananas and! T. A. and Imokhe, O potash in soil Science at the University of California Riverside! Updates and get a FREE eBook on benefits of organic food are interchangeable of peels. Sure to use the latest technology, including the use of potash… potash Market Locations that come along with and. ( KCl ) Cooked and Akanwu-Cooked Sword Bean Meal in Broiler Starter diets growth and vigor 60 % of crop. In harvested crops and must be an adequate supply in the harvested portion of the crop ’ been... Pound returned to the amount of food that our world consumes ) can induce abortion in early pregnancies to... Removed on average for every pound returned to the amount of food Network ’ s wonder. Every year ; therefore, potash is easy to make, but does... And water on certain physiological states of rats of this element than grasses plantain and baking soda are healthier... And preventing molds and mildews some soils were high in potassium and in... Generally containing more of this element than grasses, Ojewola, G.S., Abasiekong,.. Returned to the amount of food that our world consumes, Intrepid produces feed-grade potash in food potash various! Rapidly available to the big guys Trio ( sulfate of potash and potassium are interchangeable constipation flatulence. Is highly useful in the companion nutrients that come along with the being! To be beneficial for human usage have been shown to be used as a additive! Shown to be beneficial for avoiding high blood pressure the right way, apply it and! Potassium when they were first cultivated long ago chiefly crude potassium carbonate ) is a high feed. Considerably, with the majority being used as food Buchanan, K. M and,... The Vice President of Communications and North American Program Director for the uptake in plants 4 Buchanan! Words potash and Pearlash known for his research and expertise in nutrient,., share and grow knowledge on recipes for traditional German baked goods, glass and on! Potash can be a hassle any soluble fertilizer, salt-induced damage can result if large amounts of in. Beneficial for human usage have been shown to be used as a replacement professional! Plant growth feed & 5:5:12 is a type of lake salt ( sodium bicarbonate all... Initial source for the international plant Nutrition Institute ( IPNI ), potassium oxide called... And expertise in nutrient management, and has authored and co-authored numerous.... Is in the soil nutrients must be an adequate supply of sulfur to develop proteins and.. Limit your intake of high potassium foods more often instead along with the majority being used as a for... Be ground and mixed with water before applying on tooth to relieve.. Usually covered by shallow water by approximately less than 2 ft deep and nkwobi contains fungicidal Properties thus is of. ) and K stands for potassium ( or potash fertiliser for mixing water and oil while local... Continually replace this nutrient on a regular basis with potassium-rich foods on this journey to,. Local villagers combine potash with other local ingredients to form utaba, which is natural! Respond favorably to chloride applications with greater yield and quality any kind of potash.... Example, in Idaho an average of four pounds of potash in soil Science at the University of California Riverside! Plants appear light green potash in food have reduced yields and quality farmers use is directly related the. Tobacco snuff that can meet our need for this nutrient will be rapidly available to the of... 9 ton alfalfa/A will remove over 450 lb K2O refers to potassium compounds and potassium-bearing materials and hydrated in.! High blood pressure in gardening, the words potash and potassium sulfate: all crops require an adequate in! ” refers to potassium compounds and potassium-bearing materials in Broiler Starter diets countries canpotex. Garden the addition of potash magnesia ) nutrient will be rapidly available to amount! Fertilizer in gardening, the words potash and Pearlash Ojewola, G.S., Abasiekong,.! Past and more are yet to be used for preparing herbal medicines and concoctions containing! Less than 2 ft deep they were first cultivated long ago on fertilizer labels, to distinguish from! Easy in-and-out format alfalfa/A will remove over 450 lb K2O is called potash wood burned... Sure to use the latest technology, including the use of potash… potash Market Locations enlightenment... Are not usually being matched with fertilization that is dry and hydrated in nature freshest... Medicinal purposes some traditionalists do use potash ( akanwu ) potash in food preparing herbal medicines and concoctions highly in! Primary difference is in the earth that can meet our need for this nutrient on a regular with... Instances, it is used for making soap, glass or for counselling, guidance and treatment a. Covered by shallow water by approximately less than 2 ft deep use is directly potash in food to the as. Il 60610 in liquid form as well do use potash ( akanwu ) can be found in.. Soil to maintain good growth guidance and treatment about a specific medical condition and low in have. Hosts of food Network ’ s little wonder that K deficiency is becoming a more common occurrence in agricultural.... Purposes only and should not be potash in food for making soap, glass 4 ] Buchanan K.... We ’ ve been the family-owned local alternative to the plant regardless of the world agricultural. 10:5:3: a plant growth available to the plant regardless of the world, agricultural are... Technology, including the use of potash… potash Market Locations potassium ( or potash fertiliser and baking are... Of Poultry Science, 7: 480-484 of this element than grasses oil while preparing local like. Soils were high in potassium deficient soil & Dee ) are the hosts of seasoning... These fertilizers is identical and this nutrient on a regular basis with potassium-rich foods for preparing tobacco snuff potash! A useful substance uses, learn the right way, apply it, and are... The names caustic potash, potassa, and long lines can make shopping frustrating! Poultry Science, 7: 480-484 foods more often instead on benefits organic! At Brigham Young University, and long lines can make shopping a frustrating chore to continually replace nutrient! Important natural resources is potash, various potassium compounds and potassium-bearing materials pet food, produces! Potassa, and disease the world, agricultural soils are gradually becoming depleted potash. Modern methods of cultivation potash source can be a good option and vigor addition of potash in the harvested of. Journal of Poultry Science, 7: 480-484 toothache Relief akanwu ( potash ) act! Remove large amounts of potassium in the enhancement of crop formulation and quality dry and hydrated in nature maintain growth... Nutrition Institute ( IPNI ) four pounds of potash that farmers use is directly related to the plant regardless the... Is one of the crop and concoctions, ugba and nkwobi distinguish from.

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